Language and Gender
Edited by Susan Ehrlich
Routledge – 2008 – 1,824 pages
Series: Major Themes in English Studies
This landmark four-volume collection traces the development of language and gender from its original associations with second-wave feminism to its more recent alignment with postmodern approaches to feminism.
Language and Gender is fully indexed and has a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which highlights key themes that have persisted across different historical periods and places the collected material in its intellectual context. It is an essential work of reference and is destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
Volume I: Foundational Debates 1: Does ‘Women’s Language’ Exist?
Part 1: Dominance Framework
1. Robin Lakoff, ‘Language and Woman’s Place’, Language and Woman’s Place (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1975), pp. 3–19.
2. Pamela Fishman, ‘Interaction: The Work Women Do’, Social Problems, 25 (1978), pp. 397–406.
3. Candace West and Don Zimmerman, ‘Small Insults: A Study of Interruptions in Cross-Sex Conversations Between Unacquainted Persons’, in B. Thorne, C. Kramare, and H. Henley (eds.), Language, Gender and Society (Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1983), pp. 102–17.
4. William O’Barr and Bowman Atkins, ‘"Women’s Language" or "Powerless Language"’, in S. McConnell-Ginet, R. Borker, and N. Furman (eds.), Women in Language and Society (New York: Praeger, 1980), pp. 193–110.
Part 2: Difference Framework
5. Daniel Maltz and Ruth Borker, ‘A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication’, in John Gumperz (ed.), Language and Social Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 196–216.
6. Deborah Tannen, ‘"Put Down that Paper and Talk to Me!": Rapport-talk and Report-talk’, You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation (New York: William Morrow, 1990), pp. 74–95.
7. Aki Uchida, ‘When "Difference" is "Dominance": A Critique of the "Anti-Power-Based" Cultural Approach to Sex Differences’, Language in Society, 21: 547–68, 1992.
8. Nancy Henley and Cheris Kamarae, ‘Gender, Power and Miscommunication’, in N. Coupland, H. Giles, and J. Wiemann (eds.), Miscommunication and Problematic Talk (Newbury Park, Ca.: Sage Publications, 1991), pp. 18–43.
Part 3: Sex as a Sociolinguistic Variable
9. Peter Trudgill, ‘Sex, Covert Prestige and Linguistic Change in the Urban British English of Norwich’, Language in Society, 1: 179–95, 1972.
10. Patricia Nichols, ‘Linguistic Options and Choices for Black Women in the Rural South’, in B. Thorne, C. Kramarae, and N. Henley (eds.), Language, Gender and Society (Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1983), pp. 54–68.
11. Penny Eckert, ‘The Whole Woman: Sex and Gender Differences in Variation’, Language Variation and Change, 1: 245–67, 1989.
Part 4: Challenging Global Generalizations: Theoretical Perspectives
12. Penny Eckert and Sally McConnell-Ginet, ‘Think Practically and Look Locally: Language and Gender as Community-Based Practice’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 21: 461–90, 1992.
13. Deborah Cameron, ‘Not Gender Difference but the Difference Gender Makes: Explanation in Research on Sex and Language’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 94: 13–26, 1992.
Part 5: Challenging Global Generalizations: Empirical Perspectives
14. Marjorie Harness Goodwin, ‘Cooperation and Competition Across Girls’ Play Activities’, in A. Todd and S. Fisher (eds.), Gender and Discourse: The Power of Talk (Norwood, New Jersey: Albex, 1988), pp. 55–94.
15. Alice Freed and Alice Greenwood, ‘Women, Men and Type of Talk: What Makes the Difference’, Language in Society 25: 1–26, 1996.
16. M. H. Stanback ‘Language and Black Women’s Place: Evidence from the Black Middle Class’, in P. Treichler, C. Kramarae, and B. Stafford (eds.), For Alma Mater: Theory and Practice in Feminist Scholarship (Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1985).
17. Penelope Brown, ‘Gender, Politeness and Confrontation in Tenejapa’, Discourse Processes, 13: 123–41, 1990.
18. Elinor Keenan, ‘Norm-makers, Norm-breakers: Uses of Speech by Men and Women in a Malagasy Community’, in R. Bauman and J. Sherzer (eds.), Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), pp. 125–43.
Volume II: Foundational Debates 2: Is Language Sexist?
Part 1: Sexist Language: Early Articulations
19. Dale Spender, ‘Language and Reality: Who Made the World’, Man Made Language, 2nd edn. (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980), pp. 138–62.
20. Robin Lakoff, ‘Talking about Women’, Language and Woman’s Place (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1975), pp. 19–42.
Part 2: Sexism and the Linguistic ‘Code’: Words and Expressions
21. Muriel Schulz, ‘The Semantic Derogation of Woman’, in B. Thorne and N. Henley (eds.), Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance (Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1975), pp. 64–75.
22. Julia P. Stanley, ‘Paradigmatic Women: The Prostitute’, in D. Shores and C. Hines (eds.), Papers in Language Variation (University of Alabama Press, 1977), pp. 303–21.
23. Paula Treichler, ‘From Discourse to Dictionary: How Sexist Meanings are Authorized’, in F. Frank and P. Treichler (eds.), Language, Gender and Professional Writing (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1989), pp. 51–79.
Part 3: Sexism and the Linguistic ‘Code’: Androcentric Grammar
24. Sandra Bem and Daryl Bem, ‘Does Sex-Based Advertising "Aid and Abet" Sex Discrimination?’, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3: 6–18, 1973.
25. Ann Bodine, ‘Androcentrism in Prescriptive Grammar: Singular "They", Sex-Indefinite "He" and "He or She"’, Language in Society, 4: 129–46, 1975.
26. Wendy Martyna, ‘Beyond the He/Man Approach: The Case for Nonsexist Language’, in B. Thorne, C. Kramarae, and N. Henley (eds.), Language, Gender and Society (Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1983), pp. 25–37.
Part 4: Gender-Based Language Reform
27. Anne Pauwels, ‘How Should Sexist Language be Changed?’, Women Changing Language (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 94–139.
28. Marlis Hellinger, ‘Revising the Patriarchal Paradigm: Language Change and Feminist Language Politics’, in R. Wodak (ed.), Language, Power and Ideology (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1988).
29. Francine Wattman Frank, ‘Language Planning, Language Reform, and Language Change: A Review of Guideline for Nonsexist Usage’, in F. Frank and P. Treichler (eds.), Language, Gender and Professional Writing (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1989), pp. 103–33.
Part 5: Limitations to Language Reform: Reform in its Social and Cultural Context
30. Fatemah Khosroshahi, ‘Penguins Don’t Care, But Women Do: A Social Identity Analysis of a Whorfian Problem’, Language in Society, 18: 505–25, 1989.
31. Deborah Cameron, ‘Problems of Sexist and Non-sexist Language’, in J. Sunderland (ed.), Exploring Gender: Questions and Implications for English Language Education (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall, 1994), pp. 26–33.
32. Sally McConnell-Ginet, ‘The Sexual (Re)Production of Meaning: A Discourse-Based Theory’, in F. Frank and P. Treichler (eds.), Language, Gender and Professional Writing (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1989), pp. 35–50.
33. Susan Ehrlich and Ruth King, ‘Feminist Meanings and the (De)Politicization of the Lexicon’, Language in Society, 23: 59–76, 1994.
Part 6: Limitations to Language Reform: Discursive Practices
34. Kate Clark, ‘The Linguistics of Blame: Representations of Women in the Sun’s Reporting of Crimes of Sexual Violence’, in Michael Toolan (ed.), Language, Text and Context (London: Routledge).
35. Nancy Henley, Michelle Miller, and Jo Anne Beazley, ‘Syntax, Semantics and Sexual Violence: Agency and the Passive Voice’, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 14: 60–84, 1995.
36. Emily Martin, ‘The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 16: 485–501, 1991.
37. Celia Kitzinger and Alison Thomas, ‘Sexual Harassment: A Discursive Approach’, in S. Wilkinson and C. Kitzinger (eds.), Feminism and Discourse: Psychological Perspectives (London: Sage Publications, 1995), pp. 32–48.
Volume III: Social Constructionist Approaches to Language and Gender
Part 1: Gendered Linguistic Practices as Symbolic/Ideological Categories
38. Elinor Ochs, ‘Indexing Gender’, in A. Duranti and C. Goodwin (eds.), Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 335–58.
39. Susan Gal, ‘Language, Gender and Power: An Anthropological Review’, in Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 169–82.
40. Deborah Cameron, ‘Gender and Language Ideologies’, in Janet Holmes and Miriam Meyerhoff (eds.), Handbook of Language and Gender (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003), pp. 447–67.
41. Miyako Inoue, ‘Gender, Language and Modernity: Toward an Effective History of "Japanese Women’s Language"’, American Ethnologist, 29: 392–422, 2002.
Part 2: Gender Diversity within Communities of Practice
42. Penny Eckert, ‘Gender and Sociolinguistic Variation’ in Jennifer Coates (ed.), Language and Gender: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers 1998) pp. 64–74.
43. Mary Bucholtz, ‘"Why be Normal?" Language and Identity Practices in a Community of Nerd Girls’, Language and Society, 28: 203–23, 1999.
44. Ana Cristina Ostermann ‘Communities of Practice at Work: Gender, Facework and the Power of Habitus at an All-Female Police Station and a Feminist Crisis Center in Brazil’, Discourse & Society, 14: 473–505, 2003.
45. Joan Pujolar, ‘Masculinities in a Multilingual Setting’, in S. Johnson and U. Meinhof (eds.), Language and Masculinity (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997), pp. 86–106.
Part 3: Performativity: Normative and Non-Normative Femininities/Masculinities
46. Kira Hall, ‘Lip Service on the Fantasy Lines’, in Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 183–216.
47. Jennifer Coates, ‘Women Behaving Badly: Female Speakers Backstage’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3: 65–80, 1999.
48. Marcyliena Morgan, ‘Conversational Signifying: Grammar and Indirectness Among African American Women’, in E. Ochs, E. Schegloff, and S. Thompson (eds.), Interaction and Grammar (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 405–33.
49. Laura Miller, ‘Those Naughty Teenage Girls: Japanese Kogals, Slang and Media Assessments’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 14: 225–47, 2004.
50. Bonnie McElhinny, ‘Challenging Hegemonic Masculinities: Female and Male Police Officers Handling Domestic Violence’, in Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 217–43.
51. Deborah Cameron, ‘Performing Gender Identity: Young Men’s Talk and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinities’, in S. Johnson and U. Meinhof (eds.), Language and Masculinity (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997), pp. 47–64.
52. Scott Kiesling, ‘"Now I Gotta Watch What I Say": Shifting Constructions of Masculinity in Discourse’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 11: 250–73, 2001.
Part 4: Performativity: Liminal and ‘Queer’ Identities
53. Robin Queen, ‘"I Don’t Speak Spritch": Locating Lesbian Language’, in Anna Livia and Kira Hall (eds.), Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender and Sexuality (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 233–56.
54. Robert Podesva, Sarah Roberts, and Kathryn Campbell-Kibler, ‘Sharing Resources and Indexing Meanings in the Production of Gay Styles’, in K. Campbell-Kibler, R. Podesva, S. Roberts, and A. Wong (eds.), Language and Sexuality: Contesting Meaning in Theory and Practice (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Communication Publications, 2002), pp. 175–89.
55. Rusty Barrett, ‘Indexing Polyphonous Identity in the Speech of African American Drag Queens’, in M. Bucholtz, A. Liang, and L. Sutton (eds.), Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 313–31.
56. Kira Hall and Vernoica Donovan, ‘Shifting Gender Positions among Hindi-Speaking Hijras’, in V. Bergvall, J. Bing, and A. Freed (eds.) Rethinking Language and Gender Research (London: Longman, 1996), pp. 228–66.
Volume IV: Contemporary Debates
Part 1: Agency Versus Structure: Language and Gender in Institutions
57. Elinor Ochs and Carolyn Taylor, ‘The "Father Knows Best" Dynamic in Dinnertime Narratives’, in Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 97–120.
58. Judith Baxter, ‘"Do We Have to Agree with Her?" How High School Girls Negotiate Leadership in Public Contexts’, in J. Baxter (ed.), Speaking Out: The Female Voice in Public Contexts (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), pp. 159–78.
59. Janet Holmes, ‘Power and Discourse at Work: Is Gender Relevant’, in M. Lazar (ed.), Feminist Discourse Analysis: Gender, Power and Ideology and Discourse (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), pp. 31–60.
60. Shonna Trinch, ‘The Pragmatic Use of Gender in Latina Women’s Narratives’, Journal of Speech, Language and the Law, 14: 51–82, 2007.
61. Susan Ehrlich, ‘Trial Discourse and Judicial Decision-Making: Constraining the Boundaries of Gendered Identities’, in J. Baxter (ed.), Speaking Out: The Female Voice in Public Contexts (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), pp. 139–58.
Part 2: Agency Versus Structure: Positioning Gendered Subjects in Popular Culture
62. Mary Talbot, ‘A Synthetic Sisterhood: False Friends in a Teenage Magazine’, in Kira Hall and Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 143–65.
63. Momoko Nakamura, ‘"Let’s Dress a Little Girlishly!" or "Conquer Short Pants!": Constructing Gendered Communities in Fashion Magazines for Young People’, in S. Okamoto and J. Shibamoto Smith (eds.), Japanese Language, Gender and Ideology (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 131–47.
64. Bethan Benwell, ‘"Lucky This is Anonymous": Ethnographies of Reception in Men’s Magazines: A "Textual Culture" Approach’, Discourse & Society, 16: 147–72, 2005.
65. Mary Bucholtz, ‘Purchasing Power: The Gender and Class Imaginary on the Shopping Channel’, in M. Bucholtz, A. Liang, and L. Sutton (eds.), Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 348–68.
66. Deborah Cameron, ‘Language, Sexism and Advertising Standards’, On Language and Sexual Politics (London: Routledge), pp. 27–42.
Part 3: Methodological Debates: When is Gender Relevant?
67. E. A. Schegloff, ‘Whose Text, Whose Context?’, Discourse & Society, 8: 165–87, 1997.
68. Margaret Wetherell, ‘Positioning and Interpretative Repertoires: Conversation Analysis and Post-Structuralism in Dialogue’, Discourse & Society, 9: 387–412, 1998.
69. Celia Kitzinger, ‘Doing Feminist Conversation Analysis’, Feminism & Psychology, 10: 163–93, 2000.
70. Elizabeth Stokoe, ‘Analysing Gender and Language’, Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9: 118–33, 2005.
71. Jack Sidnell, ‘Constructing and Managing Male-Exclusivity in Talk-in-Interaction’, in Janet Holmes and Miriam Meyerhoff (eds.), Handbook of Language and Gender (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003), pp. 327–52.
72. Marjorie Harness Goodwin, ‘Building Power Asymmetries in Girls’ Interaction’, Discourse & Society, 13: 715–30, 2002.
Part 4: Towards a Queer Linguistics
73. Don Kulick, ‘Gay and Lesbian Language’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 29: 243–85, 2000.
74. Mary Bucholtz and Kira Hall, ‘Theorizing Identity in Language and Sexuality Research’, Language in Society, 33: 501–47, 2004.