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African American Feminisms, 1828–1923

Edited by Teresa Zackodnik

Routledge – 2007 – 2,736 pages

Series: History of Feminism

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    978-0-415-39537-3
    June 6th 2007

Description

The black women's club movement is frequently seen as definitive of "first-wave" African American feminism. However, this six-volume collection from the History of Feminism series draws together key documents that show the varied political work African American feminists were undertaking well before the turn into the 20th century.

African American Feminisms brings together writings that document distinctly African American feminist organizing from as early as the late 1820s through female benevolent and literary societies, as well as writings that document African American feminist participation in black political concerns such as emigration and colonization, discrimination in public transportation, and anti-lynching. African American women also negotiated competing demands within interracial reform movements like abolition, woman's rights, temperance and suffrage, as well as within organizations like the black church, making documents that offer insight into those unique demands key to understanding black feminist arguments and rhetoric. Pursuing a varied feminist rhetoric that ranged from advocating domestic and maternal feminism to defending black womanhood, African American feminists focused on larger social reforms as well as agitating for material changes in the lives of African American women and girls. African American feminists were also keenly attuned to opening useful venues to black feminist voices, from the pulpit to the press, and urged the women that followed them to continue this work.

This collection, which includes a variety of genres from the spiritual autobiography to the platform speech and the pamphlet, goes beyond the more common focus on the "greats" of black feminism to include lesser known black feminists and some unidentified women who contributed to black feminist debate on a variety of topics. African American Feminisms, edited and with an introduction by Teresa Zackodnik, is destined to be welcomed by those interested in women's studies, feminism, and African American history as an invaluable reference resource.

Contents

Volume 1

Roots of Reform and Early African American Feminism

Women and the Church

Annie E. Brown, Religious Work and Travels (Chester, PA: Olin T. Pancoast Press, 1909). 118pp.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Frederick Douglass’, The North Star, 23 Mar. 1849.

Lydia Maria Child, ‘Letter XI [re: Julia Pell]’, Letters From New York (New York: Charles S. Frances and Co., 1843), 61–70.

Dora J. Cole, ‘We are glad to note in the Methodist Conference …’, Woman’s Era, 2.1 (Apr. 1895): 5.

—— ‘In the April number of the Era …’ Woman’s Era, 2.3 (June 1895): 6-7.

Sara J. Duncan, ‘Woman A Factor in the Development of Christian Missions. First Address at Columbus, Ohio, 1900’, Progressive Missions in the South and Addresses (Atlanta: Franklin Printing and Publishing, 1906), 101–14.

—— ‘Woman The Principal Projector to Christian Civilization. Spoken at Chicago, 1904’, Progressive Missions in the South and Addresses (Atlanta: Franklin Printing and Publishing, 1906), 122–8.

—— ‘Women in the Churches’, Progressive Missions in the South and Addresses (Atlanta: Franklin Printing and Publishing, 1906), 170–8.

Zilpha Elaw, Memoirs of the Life, Religious Experiences, Ministerial Travels and Labours and Mrs. Zilpha Elaw, An American Female of Colour: Together with Some Account of the Great Religious Revivals in America (London: T. Dudley, 1846). 172pp.

Julia Foote, A Brand Plucked From the Fire. An Autobiographical Sketch (Cleveland, OH: W.F. Schneider, 1879). 124pp.

‘The General Conference. The proceedings of the Conference … Fourteenth Day’, Christian Recorder, 29 May 1884: 2.

‘The General Conference. Report of the Two Last Days … Eighteenth Day’, Christian Recorder, 5 June 1884: 2.

Sarah Ann [Sallie Ann] Hughes, ‘The North Carolina Conference—Presiding Elders’ Reports’, Christian Recorder, 10 Dec. 1885: 2.

Jarena Lee, The Life and Religious Experiences of Jarena Lee, a Coloured Lady, Giving an Account of her Call to Preach the Gospel (Philadelphia: For the author, 1836). 24pp.

Gertrude [Mrs. N.F.] Mossell, ‘Our Woman’s Department’, Indianapolis World, 11 June 1892.

Old Elizabeth, Memoir of Old Elizabeth, a Coloured Woman (Philadelphia: David Heston, 1868). 26pp.

Maria Stewart, ‘Cause for Encouragement’, The Liberator, 14 July 1832.

—— ‘An Address Delivered Before the Afric-American Female Intelligence Society of Boston. By Mrs. Maria W. Stewart’, The Liberator, 28 Apr. 1832.

Volume 2

Part One: Female Benevolent and Literary Societies

‘Address to the Female Literary Association of Philadelphia’, The Liberator, 9 June 1832.

‘Address to the Female Literary Association of Philadelphia, On their First Anniversary: By A Member’, The Liberator, 13 Oct. 1832.

‘An Address, Delivered before the Female Branch Society of Zion, by Wm. Thompson, at Zion’s Church on the 5th of April’, The Colored American, 3 June 1837.

‘An Address Delivered before the Members of the Female Minervian Association’, The Liberator, 1 Mar. 1834.

‘Constitution of the Colored Female Religious and Moral Society of Salem’, The Liberator, 16 Feb. 1833.

Sarah Mapps Douglass, ‘Mental Feasts’, The Liberator, 21 July 1832.

—— ‘At the annual meeting of the Philadelphia Female Literary Association …’ The Liberator, 6 Oct. 1837.

‘Female Associations … Constitution of the Afric-American Female Intelligence Society of Boston’, Genius of Universal Emancipation, 10.2 (Mar. 1832): 163.

William Lloyd Garrison, ‘Female Literary Association’, The Liberator, 30 June 1832.

Hope, ‘The Colored Female Charitable Society’, The Liberator, 29 Dec. 1832.

‘Notice [re the formation of the African Dorcas Association, New York City]’, Freedom’s Journal, 1 Feb. 1828.

‘Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Female Assistant Society of New York, held in Zion Church, on the 28th February’, The Colored American, 15 Mar. 1838.

‘A Short Address, Read at a "Mental Feast," by a young lady of color’, The Liberator, 11 May 1833.

‘Third Anniversary of the Ladies’ Literary Society of the City of New York’, The Colored American, 23 Sept. 1837.

‘Third Anniversary … the Female Wesleyan Anti-Slavery Society’, The Colored American, 16 Mar. 1839.

Toronto Ladies Association for the Relief of Destitute Colored Fugitives, ‘American Slavery’, The Provincial Freeman, 24 Mar. 1853.

‘Worthy of Notice [re the formation of the African Dorcas Association, New York City]’, The Colored American, 25 Jan. 1828.

Part Two: Abolition

Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society [Susan Paul], ‘To the Friends of the Anti-Slavery Cause in Massachusetts’, The Liberator, 13 Mar. 1840.

William Wells Brown, ‘Singular Escape’, The Liberator, 12 Jan. 1849.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘American Slavery’, The Provincial Freeman, 24 Mar. 1853.

—— ‘Meeting to Organize the Provincial Union’, The Provincial Freeman, 19 Aug. 1854.

—— ‘To the Provincial Freeman’ and ‘Remarks’, The Provincial Freeman, 26 Aug. 1854.

—— ‘American Slavery’, British Banner, 20 Nov. 1855.

—— ‘Trifles’, The Anglo-African Magazine, 1.1 (Jan. 1859): 55–6.

Charlotte, ‘Sorrows of a Female Heart’, The Liberator, 31 Mar. 1832.

Grace Bustill and Sarah Mapps Douglass, ‘Letter from G. and S. M. Douglass’, The Liberator, 21 June 1839.

Sarah Mapps Douglass, (‘Zillah’), ‘A Mother’s Love’, The Liberator, 28 July 1832.

—— (‘Sophanisba’), ‘Ella. A Sketch’, The Liberator, 4 Aug. 1832.

—— ‘At a stated meeting of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society …’, Pennsylvania Freeman, 21 June 1838.

—— ‘Appeal of the Philadelphia Association’, North Star, 7 Sept. 1849.

‘Ellen Craft’, New National Era, 14 Dec. 1871.

William Farmer, ‘Fugitive Slaves at the Great Exhibition. London, June 26th, 1851’, The Liberator, 18 July 1851.

Sarah [‘Magawisca’] Forten, ‘The Abuse of Liberty’, The Liberator, 26 Mar. 1831.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘The Colored People in America’, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (Boston: J. B. Yerrinton and Son, 1854), 38–40.

—— ‘The Free Labor Movement’, Frederick Douglass’ Paper, 29 June 1855.

—— ‘Could we trace the record of every human heart …’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 23 May 1857.

—— ‘Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Anti-Slavery Society … Speech of Miss Frances Ellen Watkins’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 22 May 1858.

—— ‘Our Greatest Want’, The Anglo-African Magazine, 1.1 (Jan. 1859): 160.

—— ‘Miss Watkins and the Constitution’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 9 Apr. 1859.

—— ‘Letter from Miss Watkins’, Anti-Slavery Bugle, 23 Apr. 1859.

—— ‘A Word From Miss Watkins’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 18 Feb. 1860.

—— ‘Letters … Mrs Elizabeth Jones—Respected Friend’, Anti-Slavery Bugle, 29 Sept. 1860.

—— ‘Lecture on the Mission of the War’, Christian Recorder, 21 May 1864.

—— ‘Speech of Mrs. Frances E. W. Harper’, The Liberator, 11 Aug. 1865.

Susan Paul, ‘Temptation Resisted’, American Anti-Slavery Almanac for 1837, vol. 2 (Boston: N. Southard and D. K. Hitchcock, 1837), 42.

Sarah Parker Remond, ‘Letter from Miss Remond’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 23.2 (Nov. 1858): 179–80.

—— ‘Letter from Mr. Garrison’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 26.2 (Feb. 1859): 1.

—— ‘Miss Remond’s Second Lecture on Slavery’, The Warrington Standard, and Lancashire and Chesire Advertiser, 5 Feb. 1859.

—— ‘Miss Sarah P. Remond in Liverpool’, The Liberator, 18 Feb. 1859.

—— ‘Lecture on American Slavery by a Colored Lady’, ‘A Second Lecture by Miss Remond’ and ‘The Lecture at the Lion Hotel’, The Liberator, 11 Mar. 1859.

—— ‘What Miss Remond Has Effected in Warrington’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 28.2 (Apr. 1859): 221.

—— ‘Miss Remond’s First Lecture in Dublin’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 28.2 (Apr. 1859): 221–4.

—— ‘From our Dublin Correspondent’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 30 Apr. 1859.

—— ‘Letter from Mr. Horner’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 30.2 (June 1859): 1.

—— ‘Lectures on American Slavery’, Anti-Slavery Reporter, 1 July 1859: 148–51.

—— ‘Miss Remond in Bristol’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 33.2 (1 Sept. 1859): 267.

—— ‘Miss Remond in Manchester’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 34.2 (1 Oct. 1859): 274–5.

—— ‘Anti-Slavery Meeting in Manchester, England’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 15 Oct. 1859.

—— ‘Are American "Friends" Implicated in the Slave System?’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 36.2 (1 Dec. 1859): 288–9.

—— ‘Miss Remond in Yorkshire’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 38.2 (1 Feb. 1860): 306.

—— ‘Great Anti-Slavery Meeting in Wakefield’, Frederick Douglass’ Paper, 17 Feb. 1860.

—— ‘Miss Remond in Edinburgh’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 47.2 (1 Nov. 1860): 377–8.

—— ‘Monthly Summary’, The Anti-Slavery Reporter, 1 Nov. 1860: 271–2.

—— ‘American Slavery’, The Scotsman, 29 Dec. 1860.

—— Miss Remond in Scotland’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 50.2 (1 Feb. 1861): 399.

—— The Negroes and Anglo-Africans as Freedmen and Soldiers (London: Victoria Press, 1864). 31pp.

—— ‘Negro Character’, The Liberator, 22 Dec. 1865.

—— ‘Letter from Sarah P. Remond’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 3 Nov. 1866.

Lucy Stanton, ‘A Plea for the Oppressed’, Oberlin Evangelist, 17 Dec. 1850.

Maria W. Stewart, ‘An Address. Delivered in the African Masonic Hall, in Boston, February 27, 1833. By Mrs Maria W. Stewart. (Concluded)’, The Liberator, 4 May 1833.

Harriet Beecher Stowe, ‘Sojourner Truth, The Libyan Sibyl’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 28 Mar. 1863.

Sojourner Truth, Advertisement for Narrative and Book of Life.

—— ‘Proceedings of the Rhode Island State Anti-Slavery Society’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 28 Nov. 1850.

—— ‘Proceedings of the Anti-Slavery Convention Held at Union Village, Washington County, N.Y., the 20th and 21st of February, 1851’, National Ant-Slavery Standard, 6 Mar. 1851.

—— ‘Proceedings at the Anti-Slavery Celebration at Framingham, July 4, 1854’, The Liberator, 14 July 1854.

—— ‘Pro-Slavery in Indiana’, The Liberator, 15 Oct. 1858.

—— ‘Letter from Sojourner Truth’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 13 Feb. 1864.

—— ‘Sojourner Truth’, Pacific Appeal, 27 Feb. 1864.

—— ‘Letter from Sojourner Truth. The Story of her Interview with the President’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 17 Dec. 1864.

—— ‘Sojourner Truth Among the Freedmen’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 17 Dec. 1864.

—— ‘Sojourner Truth writes us from Rochester, as follows’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 27 Apr. 1867.

—— ‘Sojourner Truth. Letter from Amy Post’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 26 Dec. 1868.

—— ‘Letter from Sojourner Truth—Land for the Freed-People’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 4 Mar. 1871.

‘William and Ellen Craft’, Anti-Slavery Standard, 8 Feb. 1849.

‘Zelmire’, ‘Unnatural Distinction’, The Liberator, 28 July 1832.

Volume 3

Feminist Black Nationalism

Part One: Emigration and Colonization

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Fugitive Slaves in Canada’, The Provincial Freeman, 25 Mar. 1854.

—— ‘The Humbug of Reform’, The Provincial Freeman, 27 May 1854.

—— ‘Dear Freeman’, The Provincial Freeman, 20 Jan. 1855.

—— ‘A Voice of Thanks’, The Liberator, 29 Nov. 1861.

Sarah Mapps (‘Zillah’) Douglass, ‘To Zillah’ and ‘Reply to Woodby’, The Liberator, 18 Aug. 1832.

—— ‘A General View of Hayti [Letter from J. Theodore Holly]’, The Liberator, 19 June 1863.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Mrs. Frances E. Watkins Harper on the War and the President’s Colonization Scheme’, Christian Recorder, 27 Sept. 1862.

Elizabeth J. Jennings, ‘Thoughts on Colonization’, Pacific Appeal, 29 Nov. 1862.

—— ‘We Will Not Go’, Pacific Appeal, 13 Dec. 1862.

Sarah Parker Remond, ‘American Slavery and African Colonisation’, The Anti-Slavery Advocate, 35.2 (1 Nov. 1859): 282–3.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘Difficulties of Colonization’, Woman’s Era, 1.1 (Mar. 1894): 9.

Sojourner Truth, ‘Lecture by Sojourner Truth’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 10 Dec. 1853.

Ida B. Wells, ‘Iola’s Southern Field’, The New York Age, 19 Nov. 1892.

—— ‘Afro-Americans and Africa.’ A.M.E. Church Review July 1892: 40–45.

Part Two: Education

Beatrice, ‘Female Education’, The Liberator, 7 July 1832.

Charlotte Hawkins Brown, ‘The Christian Teacher the Hope of Negro America’, The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress. Containing the Addresses and Proceedings of the Negro Young People’s Christian and Educational Congress, Held August 6-11, 1902, ed. I. Garland Penn and J. W. E. Bowen (Atlanta: D. E. Luther, 1902), 428–9.

Josephine B. Bruce, ‘What Has Education Done for Colored Women’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro, 1.7 (July 1904): 294–8.

Nannie Helen Burroughs, ‘Industrial Education—Will it Solve the Negro Problem’, Colored American Magazine, 7.4 (Mar. 1904): 188–90.

—— ‘Solicitation for support of National Training School for Women and Girls’ (Booker T. Washington Papers, Library of Congress).

—— ‘Letter to Emmett J. Scott re National Training School for Women and Girls’, 14 May 1908 (Booker T. Washington Papers, Library of Congress).

—— ‘Letter to Booker T. Washington re National Training School for Women and Girls’, 14 May 1908 (Booker T. Washington Papers, Library of Congress).

—— ‘Letter to Booker T. Washington re National Training School for Women and Girls’, 30 May 1908 (Booker T. Washington Papers, Library of Congress).

—— ‘Letter to Booker T. Washington re National Training School for Women and Girls’, 2 Sept. 1912 (Booker T. Washington Papers, Library of Congress).

Katie S. Campbell, ‘Our Educational Interests’, New National Era, 12 June 1873.

Colored Woman’s League, Fourth Annual Report of the Colored Woman’s League of Washington, D.C., For the Year Ending January 1, 1897 (Washington, D.C.: F.D. Smith Co, 1897).

Anna Julia Cooper, ‘The Higher Education of Women’, The Southland, 2.2 (Apr. 1891): 186–202.

Sarah Mapps (‘Zillah’) Douglass, ‘Sympathy for Miss Crandall’, The Liberator, 20 July 1833.

Charlotte Forten, ‘Life on the Sea Islands. Part I’, The Atlantic Monthly (May 1864): 587–96.

—— ‘Life on the Sea Islands. Part II’, The Atlantic Monthly (June 1864): 666–76.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Letter from Miss Watkins’, Anti-Slavery Bugle, 21 May 1859.

—— ‘Letter from Ellen Watkins’, Anti-Slavery Bugle, 9 July 1859.

Anna Holland Jones, ‘The American Colored Woman’, The Voice of the Negro, 2.10 (Oct. 1905): 692–4.

Joyce, ‘Notes to Girls No. 2’, The People’s Advocate, 27 Nov. 1880.

Adella Hunt Logan (Mrs. Warren Logan), ‘What Are the Causes of the Great Mortality Among the Negroes in the Cities of the South, and How is That Mortality to be Lessened?’, Twentieth Century Negro Literature, or a Cyclopedia of Thought on the Vital Topics Relating to the America Negro by One Hundred of America’s Greatest Negroes, ed. D. W. Culp (J. L. Nichols, 1902), 198–202.

Gertrude Mossel [Mrs N. F.]. ‘Our Woman’s Department. Education and Marriage’, The New York Freeman, 30 Oct. 1886.

Susan Paul, ‘Reply’ and ‘Correspondence’, The Liberator, 13 Aug. 1836.

—— ‘Miss Paul’s Juvenile Concert’, The Colored American, 4 Mar. 1837.

Report of the Association for the Promotion of Child Training in the South. September 1899-May 1, 1900. 7pp.

Josephine Silone-Yates, ‘Afro-American Women as Educators’, Women of Distinction: Remarkable Works and Invincible Characters. Ed. Lawson A. Scruggs. Raleigh, N.C.: L.A. Scruggs, 1893. 309-319

Rosetta Douglass Sprague, Mary Church Terrell, Rosa Bowser and Sarah Dudley Pettey, ‘What Role is the Educated Negro Woman to Play in the Uplifting of her Race?’ symposium, Twentieth Century Negro Literature, or a Cyclopedia of Thought on the Vital Topics Relating to the America Negro by One Hundred of America’s Greatest Negroes, ed. D. W. Culp (J. L. Nichols, 1902), 166–85.

Maria Stewart, ‘Mrs. Steward’s Essays’, The Liberator, 7 Jan. 1832.

Booker T. Washington, ‘Note forwarding Nannie Helen Burroughs Letter of 14 May 1908 to Margaret Murray Washington. re National Training School for Women and Girls’, 28 May 1908 (Booker T. Washington Papers, Library of Congress).

Josephine Turpin Washington, ‘Higher Education for Women’, The People’s Advocate, 12 Apr. 1884.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘Industrial Education—Will it Solve the Negro Problem’, Colored American Magazine, 7.7 (July 1904): 491–5.

Part Three: Labor and Employment

Nannie Helen Burroughs, ‘The Colored Woman and Her Relation to the Domestic Problem’, The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress. Containing the Addresses and Proceedings of the Negro Young People’s Christian and Educational Congress, Held August 6-11, 1902, eds. I. Garland Penn and J. W. E. Bowen (Atlanta: D. E. Luther, 1902), 324–9.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Report on Woman’s Labor’, Proceedings of the Colored National Labor Convention, Held In Washington, D.C., December 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th, 1869 (Washington, D.C.: Printed at the Office of The New Era, 1870), 21–2.

—— ‘Letters to the People—No. 1. Trade for Our Boys’, New National Era, 21 Mar. 1872.

—— ‘Letters to the People—No. 2. Trade for Our Boys’, New National Era, 11 Apr. 1872.

Anna Julia Cooper, ‘Colored Women as Wage-Earners’, Southern Workman, 28 Aug. 18899: 295–8.

Elizabeth Ross Haynes, ‘Two Million Negro Women at Work’, The Southern Workman, 51.2 (Feb. 1922): 64–72.

Addie Hunton, ‘Employment of Colored Women in Chicago’, The Crisis, 1.3 (Jan. 1911): 24–5.

Mary E. Jackson, ‘The Colored Woman in Industry’, The Crisis, 17.1 (Nov. 1918): 12–17.

Alberta Moore-Smith, ‘Woman’s Development in Business’, The Colored American, Magazine (Mar. 1902): 323–6.

Gertrude Mossell [Mrs N. F.], ‘Our Woman’s Department … Employment for Women’, New York Freeman, 16 Oct. 1886.

—— ‘Our Woman’s Department … self-supporting Women. Opportunities of self-supporting Open to Women of Color’, The New York Freeman, 6 Feb. 1886.

A Negro Nurse, ‘More Slavery at the South’, The Independent, 25 Jan. 1912: 196–200.

Lucy Parsons, ‘Mrs. Parson’s Lecture [I am an anarchist …]’, The Kansas City Journal, 21 Dec. 1886.

—— ‘Mrs. Lucy Parsons’, Omaha Republican, 22 Dec. 1886.

—— ‘Lucy Parson’s Screed’, The New York Herald, 29 Aug. 1887.

Maria W. Stewart, ‘Lecture Delivered at the Franklin Hall, Boston, September 21st, 1832. By Mrs. Maria W. Stewart’, The Liberator, 17 Nov. 1832.

Mary Church Terrell, ‘What it Means to Be Colored in the Capital of the United States’, The Independent, 24 Jan. 1907: 181–6.

Katherine Davis Tillman, ‘Afro-American Women and Their Work’, AME Church Review, Apr. 1895: 477–99.

—— ‘Paying Professions for Colored Girls’, The Voice of the Negro, 4.1–2 (Jan.–Feb. 1907): 54–6.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘The Problem of Employment for Negro Women’. Hampton Negro Conference 7 (1903): 40–47

—— ‘A Northern Negro’s Autobiography’, The Independent, 14 July 1904: 91–6.

—— ‘The Woman’s Part in a Man’s Business’, The Voice of the Negro, 1.11 (Nov. 1904): 543–7.

—— ‘Colored Women of Chicago’, The Southern Workman (Oct. 1914): 564–6.

Florence Williams, ‘The Ways of the World. Woman’s Work and Woman’s Wages’, The New York Age, 9 Mar. 1889.

Part Four: Journalism

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Number Two’, The Provincial Freeman, 25 Mar. 1854.

—— ‘Saturday, July 15. I did not send to you the first part of this "missive"…’ The Provincial Freeman, 22 July 1854.

—— ‘Dear "C"’, The Provincial Freeman, 21 Oct. 1854.

Anna Julia Cooper, ‘Prospectus to Our Woman’s Department’, The Southland, 1.3 (May 1890): 159–62.

Carrie Langston, ‘Women in Journalism’, The Atchison Blade, 1.9 (10 Sept. 1892): 1.

Gertrude Mossell [Mrs N. F.], ‘Our Woman’s Department … Women and Journalism’, New York Freeman, 8 May 1886.

—— ‘Our Woman’s Department … Women as Journalists’, New York Freeman, 5 June 1886.

—— ‘Our Woman’s Department … Women’s National Press Association’, New York Freeman, 25 Dec. 1886.

Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre. ‘Editorial’, Woman’s Era, 2.1 (Apr. 1895): 8-9.

Part Five: Migration

Helen Titus Emerson, ‘Children of the Circle’, Charities, 15.1 (7 Oct. 1905): 81–3.

Sarah Collins Fernandis, ‘A Social Settlement in South Washington’, Charities, 15.1 (7 Oct. 1905): 64–6.

Betty G. Francis, ‘The Colored Young Women’s Christian Association’, The Colored American, Magazine (Feb. 1906): 126–9.

Maude K. Griffin, ‘The Negro Church and Its Social Work—St. Mark’s’, Charities, 15.1 (7 Oct. 1905): 75–6.

Addie Hunton, ‘Women’s Clubs: Caring for Young Women’, The Crisis 2.3 (July 1911): 121–2.

Frances Kellor, ‘Southern Girls in the North: The Problem of Their Protection’, Charities 13.25 (18 Mar. 1905): 2.

—— ‘Assisted Emigration From the South’, Charities, 15.1 (7 Oct. 1905): 1–14.

—— ‘Associations for Protection of Colored Women’, The Colored American, Magazine (Dec. 1905): 695–9.

Victoria Earle Matthews, ‘Some of the Dangers Confronting Southern Girls in the North’, Hampton Negro Conference, 2 (July 1898): 62–9.

Gertrude Mossell [Mrs N. F.] ‘Our Woman’s Department … A Word of Counsel’, New York Freeman, 13 Feb. 1886.

Mary White Ovington, ‘The Negro Home in New York’, Charities, 15.1 (7 Oct. 1905): 25–30.

E. M. Rhodes, ‘A New Opportunity for Women’, The Colored American, Magazine (Jan. 1906): 26–9.

—— ‘The Protection of Girls Who Travel: A National Movement’, The Colored American, Magazine (Aug. 1907): 114–15.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘The Need of Social Settlement Work for the City Negro’, Southern Workman, 33 (Sept. 1904): 501–6.

Volume 4

African American Feminism at the Nadir: Jim Crow and Lynching

Part One: Discrimination in Public Transportation

Nannie Helen Burroughs, ‘An Appeal to the White Christian Women of the Southland’, The Colored American, Magazine (Jan.–Feb. 1902): 251–2.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Extracts from a letter…’, The Liberator, 23 Apr. 1858.

Elizabeth J. Jennings, ‘Outrage Upon Colored Persons’, New York Tribune, 19 July 1854.

—— ‘The Right of Colored Persons to Ride in the Railway Cars’, Pacific Appeal, 16 May 1863.

Susan Paul, ‘To the editor of the Liberator’, The Liberator, 5 Apr. 1834.

Nancy Prince, ‘Another Brutal Outrage’, The Liberator, 17 Sept. 1841.

Sarah Parker Remond, ‘Slavery Still at Its Dirty Work’, The Liberator, 20 Jan. 1860.

—— ‘American Meanness in England’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 28 Jan. 1860.

—— ‘Disabilities of American Persons of Color’, The Liberator, 17 Feb. 1860.

Margaret Murray Washington, ‘Separate Car Law’, Woman’s Era, 2.10 (Feb. 1896): 9.

Ida B. Wells, ‘The Jim Crow Car’, The New York Age, 8 Aug. 1891.

Part Two: Lynching

‘A Distinguished Woman Honored’, American Citizen, 21 Oct. 1892.

Fanny Alexander (F. M. W.), ‘A Few Words About Lynching’, Alexander’s Magazine, 5.4 (Feb. 1908): 93–4.

—— ‘The Direct Cause and Remedy for Lynching’ in ‘The Northeastern Federation of Women’s Clubs’ Alexander’s Magazine, 6.5 (Sept. 1908): 228–32.

‘The Anti-Lynching Crusaders’, The Crisis (Nov. 1922): 8.

Florence Balgarnie, ‘Resolutions Passed by the English Anti-Lynching Committee’, Woman’s Era, 2.7 (Nov. 1895): 5.

‘The Bitter Cry of Black America. A New "Uncle-Tom’s Cabin",’ Westminster Gazette, 10 May 1894.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Duty to Dependent Races’, Transactions of the National Council of Women of the United States, Assembled in Washington, D.C., February 22 to 25, 1891, ed. Rachel Foster Avery (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1891), 86–91.

Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, ‘Famous Women of the Negro Race’, The Colored American, Magazine (Mar. 1902): 276–80.

‘Miss Wells In Scotland’, Parson’s Weekly Blade, 27 May 1893: 2.

Gertrude Mossell [Mrs N. F.]. ‘Our Woman’s Department … At Homestead the Negro got a chance in the Carnegie Mills …’, Indianapolis World, 27 Aug. 1892.

‘The Ninth Crusade’, The Crisis (Mar. 1923): 213–17.

Florida Ruffin Ridley, ‘An Open Letter to Mrs. Laura Ormiston Chant’, Woman’s Era, 1.3 (June 1894): 6.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘How To Stop Lynching’, Woman’s Era, 1.2 (May 1894): 8–9.

—— ‘… attention … is called to the open letter to Mrs. Chant’, Woman’s Era, 1.3 (June 1894): 9.

—— ‘Apologists for Lynching’, Woman’s Era, 1.3 (June 1894): 14.

—— ‘Great Britain’s Compliment to American Colored Women’, Woman’s Era, 1.5 (Aug. 1894): 1.

—— ‘Miss Willard and the Colored People’, Woman’s Era, 2.4 (July 1895): 12.

—— ‘Lady Somerset and Miss Willard Confess of Themselves Apologists for Lynching’, Woman’s Era, 2.5 (Aug. 1895): 17.

—— ‘Lynching in the United States’, Woman’s Era, 2.5 (Aug. 1895): 17.

‘Sentiment Against Lynching’, Parson’s Weekly Blade, 24 May 1894.

Mary Church Terrell, ‘Lynching from a Negro’s Point of View’, North American Review, 178 (1904): 853–68.

Katherine Davis Tillman, ‘Lines to Ida B. Wells’, Christian Recorder, 5 July 1894: 1.

Ida B. Wells, Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases (New York: New York Age, 1892). 25pp.

—— ‘Lynch Law in All Its Phases’, Our Day, 11.65 (May 1893): 333–47.

—— ‘Lynch Law’, The Reason Why The Colored American, is not in the World’s Columbian Exposition, ed. Ida B. Wells (Chicago, 1893), 25–39.

—— ‘The English Speak’, The Cleveland Gazette, 16 June 1894: 1.

—— ‘Dear Mrs Ridley’, Woman’s Era, 1.4 (July 1894): 4.

—— A Red Record. Tabulated Statistics and Alleged Causes of Lynchings in the United States, 18920189301894 (Chicago: Donohue and Henneberry, 1894). 101pp.

—— Lynch Law in Georgia (Chicago: Chicago Colored Citizens, 1899). 18pp.

—— ‘The Negro’s Case in Equity’, The Independent, 26 Apr. 1900: 1010–11.

—— ‘To the Members of the Anti-Lynching Bureau’, 1 Jan. 1902.

—— ‘How Enfranchisement Stops Lynchings’, Original Rights Magazine (June 1910): 42–53.

—— The Arkansas Race Riot (Chicago: Hume Job Print, 1920). 58pp.

Volumes 5

Black Feminist Organizing

Part One: Defense of Black Womanhood

A Black Woman of the South, ‘Letter from a Black Woman’, New National Era, 11 Apr. 1872.

Virginia W. Broughton, ‘The Social Status of the Colored Women and its Betterment’, The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress. Containing the Addresses and Proceedings of the Negro Young People’s Christian and Educational Congress, Held August 6-11, 1902, eds. I. Garland Penn and J. W. E. Bowen (Atlanta: D. E. Luther, 1902), 449–50.

Hallie Quinn Brown, ‘Discussion of the Same Subject [The Organized Efforts of the Colored Women of the South to Improve Their Condition]’, The World’s Congress of Representative Women, ed. May Wright Sewall (New York: Rand, McNally, 1894), 724–9.

Anna Julia Cooper, ‘Discussion of the Same Subject [The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women of the United States Since the Emancipation Proclamation]’, The World’s Congress of Representative Women, ed. May Wright Sewall (New York: Rand, McNally, 1894), 711–15.

Fannie Jackson Coppin, ‘Discussion Continued [The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women of the United States Since the Emancipation Proclamation]’, The World’s Congress of Representative Women, ed. May Wright Sewall (New York: Rand, McNally, 1894), 715–18.

Sarah J. Early, ‘The Organized Efforts of the Colored Women of the South to Improve Their Condition’, The World’s Congress of Representative Women, ed. May Wright Sewall (New York: Rand, McNally, 1894), 718–24.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Coloured Women of America’, Englishwoman’s Review, 15 Jan. 1878: 10–15.

Addie Hunton, ‘Negro Womanhood Defended’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro, 1.7 (July 1904): 280–2.

Frances J. Jackson, ‘The Union of Our Forces’, Woman’s Era, 3.4 (Oct. and Nov. 1896): 5–6.

Lucy Craft Laney, ‘The Burden of the Educated Colored Woman’, Hampton Negro Conference 3 (July 1899): 37–43.

Victoria Earle Matthews, ‘The man Jacks …’, Woman’s Era, 2.4 (July 1895): 2–3.

—— ‘An Explanation’ and ‘The National Federation of Afro-American Women’, Woman’s Era, 2.12 (May 1896): 7–9.

—— ‘Open Letter from Chairman of Ex. Com. Of N.F.A.-A.W’, Woman’s Era, 3.2 (June 1896): 7.

Florida Ruffin Ridley and Margaret Murray Washington, ‘An Open Letter to the Members of the National Federation of Afro-American Women’, Woman’s Era, 2.10 (Feb. 1896) 5–6.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘A Charge to be Refuted’, Woman’s Era, 2.3 (June 1895): 9.

——’Address to the First National Conference of Colored Women’, Woman’s Era, 2.5 (Aug. 1895): 13–15.

—— ‘Some Information Concerning Jacks, the Letter Writer’, Woman’s Era, 2.9 (Jan. 1896): 12.

Mary Church Terrell, ‘The Progress of Colored Women’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro 1.7 (July 1904): 291–4.

Margaret Murray Washington, ‘Social Improvement of the Plantation Woman’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro, 1.7 (July 1904): 289–90.

Ida B. Wells (‘Iola’), ‘Our Women’, The New York Age, 1 Jan. 1887.

—— ‘The Model Woman’, The New York Age, 18 Feb. 1888.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women of the United States Since the Emancipation Proclamation’, The World’s Congress of Representative Women, ed. May Wright Sewall (New York: Rand, McNally, 1894), 696–711.

—— ‘The Colored Girl’, The Voice of the Negro (June 1905): 400–3.

Sylvanie Francaz Williams, ‘The Social Status of the Negro Woman’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro 1.7 (July 1904): 298–300.

Part Two: Domestic Feminism

Anna Holland Jones, ‘A Century’s Progress of the American Colored Woman’, The Voice of the Negro, 2.9 (Sept. 1905): 631–3.

Lucy Craft Laney, ‘Address Before the Women’s Meeting’, Social and Physical Conditions of Negroes in Cities, ed. W. E. B. DuBois (Atlanta: Atlanta University Press, 1897), 55–7.

Gertrude Mossell [Mrs N. F. ], ‘Our Woman’s Department … Home’, The New York Freeman, 4 Dec. 1886.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘A Word to the A.A.W. [Association for the Advancement of Women]’, Woman’s Era, 1.8 (Nov. 1894): 8.

—— ‘Editorial’, Woman’s Era, 2.2 (May 1895): 10.

Josephine Silone-Yates, ‘Woman as a Factor in the Solution of Race Problems’, The Colored American, Magazine (Feb. 1907): 126–35.

Josephine Turpin Washington, ‘What the Citizen Owes to the Government’, The New York Globe, 9 June 1883.

Ida B. Wells, ‘Woman’s Mission’, New York Freeman, 26 Dec. 1885.

Part Three: Maternal Feminism

Mary V. Bass, ‘Home Missions’, AME Church Review 14 (Apr. 1898): 449–51.

Nannie Helen Burroughs, ‘Some Straight Talk to Mothers’, The National Baptist Union, 13 Feb. 1904, 4.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Enlightened Motherhood. An Address By Mrs. Frances E.W. Harper, Before the Brooklyn Literary Society, November 15th, 1892. 8pp.

Addie Hunton, ‘A Pure Motherhood the Basis of Racial Integrity’, The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress. Containing the Addresses and Proceedings of the Negro Young People’s Christian and Educational Congress, Held August 6-11, 1902, eds. I. Garland Penn and J. W. E. Bowen (Atlanta: D. E. Luther, 1902), 433–5.

Georgia Swift King, ‘Mother’s Meetings’, Social and Physical Conditions of Negroes in Cities, ed. W. E. B. DuBois (Atlanta: Atlanta University Press, 1897), 61–2.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘Need of Co-operation of Men and Women in Correctional Work’, Woman’s Era, 2.2 (May 1895): 4–5.

Part Four: Club Movement

Fanny Alexander (F. M. W.). ‘Conventions Held by Our Women’, Alexander’s Magazine, 4.5 (Sept. 1907): 269–73.

Janie Porter Barrett [Mrs Harris Barrett], ‘Negro Women’s Clubs and the Community’, Southern Workman, 39 (Jan. 1910): 33–4.

Mrs Rosa Morehead Bass, ‘Need of Kindergartens’, Social and Physical Conditions of Negroes in Cities, No. 2, ed. W. E. B. DuBois (Atlanta: Atlanta University Press, 1897), 66–9.

Cornelia Bowen, ‘Woman’s Part in the Uplift of Our Race’, The Colored American, Magazine, 3 (Mar. 1907): 222–3.

Mrs B. E. Bradford, ‘Woman’, The Colored American, Magazine (Aug. 1909): 103–4.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Advancement of Women’, The New York Age, 19 Nov. 1887.

Helen A. Cook, ‘The Work of the Woman’s League, Washington D.C.’, Some Efforts of American Negroes For Their Own Social Betterment, ed. W. E. B. DuBois (Atlanta: Atlanta University Press, 1898), 57–9.

Julia Childs Curtis, ‘A Girls’ Clubhouse’, The Crisis 6.6 (Oct. 1913): 294–6

Addie W. Dickerson, ‘The Status of the Negro Woman in the Nation’, National Association Notes 17 (Jan.–Feb. 1915): 3–9.

Ione E. Gibbs, ‘Woman’s Part in the Uplift of the Negro Race’, The Colored American, Magazine (Mar. 1907): 264–7.

Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, ‘Echoes from the Annual Convention of Northeastern Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs’, The Colored American, Magazine (Oct. 1903): 709–13.

Addie Hunton, ‘The Southern Federation of Colored Women’, The Voice of the Negro, 2.12 (Dec. 1905): 850–4.

—— ‘The National Association of Colored Women: Its Real Significance’, The Colored American, Magazine (July 1908): 417–24.

Alice Ruth Moore [Dunbar-Nelson], ‘Women’s Clubs at Tuskegee’, Woman’s Journal, 5 June 1897.

‘The ‘N’ Street Day Nursery’, The Crisis, 3.4 (Feb. 1912): 165–6.

‘The National Colored Woman’s Congress’, Woman’s Era, 2.9 (Jan. 1896): 2–7.

‘National Conference of Colored Women Held in Berkeley Hall, Boston, Mass., July 29, 30, 31, 1895’, Conference Souvenir Number. Woman’s Era, 2.5 (Aug. 1895): 1–15.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘Let Us Confer Together’, Woman’s Era, 2.3 (June 1895): 8.

—— ‘To the Women of the Country’, Woman’s Era, 2.5 (Aug. 1895): 16.

—— ‘The Convention of the N. F. A.-A. W.’, Woman’s Era, 3.2 (June 1896): 4.

Josephine Silone-Yates, ‘The National Association of Colored Women’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro, 1.7 (July 1904): 283–7.

—— ‘Kindergartens and Mothers’ Clubs As Related to the Work of the National Association of Colored Women’, The Colored American, Magazine (June 1905): 304–11.

Mary Church Terrell, ‘A Few Possibilities of the National Association of Colored Women’, AME Church Review, July 1896: 219–25.

—— ‘Announcement’ and ‘First Minutes of the National Association of Colored Women’, Woman’s Era, 3.3 (Aug. 1896): 3–4, 11.

—— The Progress of Colored Women. An address delivered before the National American Women’s Suffrage Association at the Columbia Theater, Washington, D.C., February 18,1898, on the occasion of its Fiftieth Anniversary (Washington: Smith Brothers, 1898), 7–16.

—— ‘The Duty of the National Association of Colored Women’, AME Church Review, 16.3 (Jan. 1900): 340–54.

—— ‘The Progress of Colored Women’, Our Woman’s Number. The Voice of the Negro, 1.7 (July 1904): 291–4.

Josephine Turpin Washington, ‘What the Club Does for the Club-Woman’, The Colored American, Magazine (Feb. 1907): 122–5.

Margaret Murray Washington, ‘Call to the National Federation of Afro-American Women’, Woman’s Era, 2.7 (Nov. 1895): 2–3.

—— ‘The Gain in the Life of Negro Women’, The Outlook 76.5 (30 Jan. 1904): 271–4.

—— ‘Club Work as a Factor in the Advance of Colored Women’, The Colored American, Magazine (Feb. 1906): 83–90.

—— ‘National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs’, National Association Notes, 16.6 (June 1913): 4–8.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘The Awakening of Women’, AME Church Review (Apr. 1897): 392–8.

—— ‘Club Movement Among Negro Women’, Progress of a Race, eds. J. W. Gibson and W. H. Crogman (Atlanta: J. L. Nichols Co., 1903), 220–6.

—— ‘The Club Movement Among the Colored Women’, The Voice of the Negro, 1.3 (Mar. 1904): 99–102.

—— ‘Work Attempted and Missed in Organized Club Work’, The Colored American, Magazine (May 1908): 281–5.

—— ‘The Need of Organized Womanhood’, The Colored American, Magazine (Jan. 1909): 652–3.

Mary I. Wood, ‘A Cloud Upon the Federation Sky’, The History of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs for the First Twenty-Two Years of Its Organization (New York: General Federation of Women’s Clubs, 1912), 127–57.

Volume 6 : Interracial and black feminist organizing

Part One: Woman’s Rights

Mary Bolton, ‘Woman’s Rights’ in ‘Our Woman’s Column’, The Christian Recorder, 22 Dec. 1887: 5.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Woman’s Rights’, Provincial Freeman, 6 May 1854: 1.

F. W. Chesson, ‘Miss Remond and the London First of August Meeting’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 12 Nov. 1859.

Anna Julia Cooper, A Voice from the South (Xenia, OH: Aldine Printing House, 1892). 304pp

E. F. J., ‘The Woman Question’, The New York Age, 26 May 1888.

Alice Felts, ‘Women’s Rights’, The Christian Recorder, 10 Dec. 1891: 2.

Frances D. Gage, ‘Sojourner Truth’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 2 May 1863.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘We Are All Bound Up Together’, Proceedings of the Eleventh National Woman’s Rights Convention (New York: Robert J. Johnston, 1866), 45–8.

Henrietta A. W___S., ‘Mr. Editor’, Provincial Freeman, 22 Apr. 1854.

Harriet Martineau, ‘To the editor’ [re Sarah Parker Remond]’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 3 Sept. 1859.

Sojourner Truth, ‘Woman’s Convention. Akron, May 28th’, The Liberator, 13 June 1851.

—— ‘Woman’s Rights Convention’, The Anti-Slavery Bugle, 21 June 1851.

—— ‘Woman’s Rights Convention. Meeting at the Broadway Tabernacle’, New York Daily Times, 8 Sept. 1853.

Part Two: Temperance

Ada M. Bittenbender, ‘Temperance at the National Capital’, Union Signal, 5 Feb. 1891, 4–5.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘The Moral Education Society’, New National Era, 27 Feb. 1873.

Carrie W. Clifford, ‘Love’s Way (A Christmas Story)’, Alexander’s Magazine, 1.8 (Dec. 1905): 55–8.

Mamie J. Dillard, ‘The Work of the W.C.T.U.’, The Atchison Blade, 1.17 (5 Nov. 1892).

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Work Among Colored People’, Minutes of the National Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, at the Eleventh Annual Meeting in St. Louis, Missouri, October 22d to 25th, 1884 (Chicago: Woman’s Temperance Publication Association, 1884), cx–cxiv.

—— ‘The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and the Colored Woman’, AME Church Review, 12 (1888): 313–16.

—— ‘Woman’s Work’, Christian Recorder, 7 Feb. 1889: 1.

—— ‘Symposium—Temperance’, AME Church Review (Apr. 1891): 372–5.

Frances Mitchell, ‘President’s Valedictory Address’, AME Church Magazine 1.11 (1844): 266–8.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘Miss Willard in Boston’, Woman’s Era, 1.4 (July 1894): 7–8.

—— ‘Miss Willard and the Colored People’, Woman’s Era, 2.4 (July 1895): 12.

Josephine Silone-Yates, ‘Position of National W.C.T.U. in Relation to Colored People’, Woman’s Era, 2.4 (July 1895): 6–7.

‘Temperance’, ‘Dear Miss Shadd’, Provincial Freeman, 9 June 1855.

Sojourner Truth, ‘Sojourner Truth, The Aged Ex-Slave, at the Central Church’, Rochester Evening Express, 25 July 1878.

Ida B. Wells, ‘All things considered …’, AME Church Review (Apr. 1891): 379–81.

Frances E. Willard, ‘Amanda Smith, the Colored Pioneer’, Union Signal, 20 Sept. 1888, 7.

Part Three: Suffrage

Maria L. Baldwin, ‘Votes for Teachers’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 189.

Mary E. Britton (‘Meb’), ‘Woman’s Suffrage. A Potent Agency in Public Reforms’, American Catholic Tribune, 22 July 1887.

Mary Olney Brown, ‘The Right of Colored Women To Vote’, New National Era, 24 Oct. 1872.

Josephine Bruce, ‘Colored Women’s Clubs’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 190.

Nannie Helen Burroughs, ‘Black Women and Reform’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 187.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Speech to Judiciary Committee Re: The Right of Women to Vote’, Jan. 1872 (Mary Ann Shadd Cary Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University).

—— ‘From District of Columbia’, New National Era, 5 Feb. 1874, 1.

—— ‘Colored Women’s Professional Franchise Association Statement of Purpose’, 9 Feb. 1880 (Mary Ann Shadd Cary Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University).

—— ‘Colored Women’s Professional Franchise Association, Minutes of the First Meeting’, 9 Feb. 1880 (Mary Ann Shadd Cary Papers, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University).

—— ‘Mrs M. A. S. Cary held another woman suffrage meeting …’, People’s Advocate, 21 Feb. 1880.

Carrie W. Clifford, ‘Votes for Children’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 185.

Coralie Franklin Cook, ‘Votes for Mothers’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 184–5.

Alice Ruth Moore Dunbar, ‘Votes and Literature’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 1.

Elizabeth Piper Ensley, ‘Election Day’, Woman’s Era, 1.9 (Dec. 1894): 17–18.

—— ‘For Raising the Age of Consent’, Woman’s Era, 2.1 (Apr. 1895): 7.

—— ‘A glance backward causes us to rejoice over the gains Woman Suffrage has made …’ Woman’s Era, 2.9 (Jan. 1896): 11.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, ‘Mrs. Frances E. W. Harper on Reconstruction’, The Liberator, 3 Mar. 1864.

—— ‘Speech of Mrs. Frances E.W. Harper [at the 1 Aug. 1865 Celebration of the West India Emancipation in Boston]’, The Liberator, 11 Aug. 1865.

—— ‘Woman’s Political Future’, The World’s Congress of Representative Women, ed. May Wright Sewall (Chicago: Rand, McNappy and Co., 1894), 433–8.

Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins, ‘There is quite a ripple … just now in favor of woman suffrage’, Woman’s Department, The Colored American, Magazine (July 1900): 122–3.

Addie Hunton, ‘Y.W.C.A’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 188–9.

Mary E. Jackson, ‘The self-supporting Woman and the Ballot’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 187–8.

Anna Holland Jones, ‘Woman Suffrage and Social Reform’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 189–90.

Willie May King, ‘Suffrage and Our Women’, The Competitor 1.5 (June 1920): 60–1.

Adella Hunt Logan, ‘Woman Suffrage’, The Colored American, Magazine (Sept. 1905): 487–9.

—— ‘Colored Women as Voters’, The Crisis, Woman’s Suffrage Number, 4.5 (Sept. 1912): 242–3.

Mary A. Lynch, ‘Social Status and Needs of the Colored Woman’, The United Negro: His Problems and His Progress. Containing the Addresses and Proceedings of the Negro Young People’s Christian and Educational Congress, Held August 6-11, 1902, eds. I. Garland Penn and J. W. E. Bowen (Atlanta: D. E. Luther, 1902), 185–7.

Miss Caroll, ‘Editor New Era’, New Era, 20 Jan. 1870.

—— ‘Letter from Miss Caroll’, New Era, 27 Jan. 1870.

Gertrude Mossell [Mrs N. F.], ‘Our Woman’s and Children’s Department … Woman Suffrage in Iceland’, Indianapolis World, 9 July 1892.

Josephine St Pierre Ruffin, ‘Woman’s Place’, Woman’s Era, 1.6 (Sept. 1894): 8.

—— ‘Colored Women and Suffrage’, Woman’s Era, 2.7 (Nov. 1895): 11.

—— ‘Trust the Women!’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 188.

Mary Talbert, ‘Women and Colored Women’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 184.

Naomi Talbert, ‘A Colored Woman’s Voice [delivered at 1869 NWSA convention in Chicago]’, The Revolution 3 (4 Mar. 1869): 139.

Mary Church Terrell, ‘Woman Suffrage and the 15th Amendment’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 191.

—— ‘The Justice of Woman Suffrage’, The Crisis, Woman’s Suffrage Number, 4.5 (Sept. 1912): 243–5.

Sojourner Truth, ‘The Anniversaries. American Equal Rights Association’, New York Post, 9 May 1867.

—— ‘Woman Suffrage. Proceedings of the Equal Rights Convention’, New York World, 11 May 1867.

—— Speech at First Annual Meeting of the American Equal Rights Association’, National Anti-Slavery Standard, 1 June 1867.

—— ‘Woman Suffrage’, New York Daily Tribune, 12 May 1870.

—— ‘A Veteran Reformer’, Rochester Evening Express, 22 July 1878.

Lillian A. Turner, ‘Votes for Housewives’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 192.

Dr Mary Waring, ‘Training and the Ballot’, The Crisis, Votes for Women Issue, 10.4 (Aug. 1915): 185–6.

Fannie Barrier Williams, ‘Women in Politics’, Woman’s Era, 1.8 (Nov. 1894): 12–13.

—— ‘Our Women’, Chicago Defender, 12 July 1913.

Katherine E. Williams, ‘The Alpha Suffrage Club’, The Half-Century Magazine, Sept. 1916: 12.

Part Four: Interracial Cooperation

Charlotte Hawkins Brown, ‘Cooperation Between White and Colored Women’, The Missionary Review of the World 45 (1922): 484–7.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary, ‘Advancement of Women. Meeting of the Association in New York’, The New York Age, 19 Nov. 1887.

Sarah Collins Fernandis, ‘Inter-racial Activities of Baltimore Women’, Southern Workman 51 (Oct. 1922): 482–4.

Name: African American Feminisms, 1828–1923 (Hardback)Routledge 
Description: Edited by Teresa Zackodnik. The black women's club movement is frequently seen as definitive of "first-wave" African American feminism. However, this six-volume collection from the History of Feminism series draws together key documents that show the varied...
Categories: History of Education, Women's & Gender History, Social & Cultural History