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Contact Languages

Edited by John Holm, Susanne Michaelis

Routledge – 2009 – 2,608 pages

Series: Critical Concepts in Linguistics

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    978-0-415-40377-1
    October 27th 2008

Description

Contact has always been a normal part of the development of languages, from those of ancient empires, those of colonial expansion, and to those of our globalizing planet today. Pidgin and creole studies have merged with the study of other language contact phenomena (adult second-language acquisition, bilingualism, bilingual mixed languages, language shift, partially restructured languages, language attrition, etc.) to form the flourishing field of contact linguistics.

This new Routledge Major Work brings together the most important contributions advancing our understanding of language contact phenomena. Beginning fitfully in the mid-nineteenth century and then gathering momentum after 1960, the field of pidgin and creole linguistics has developed from a marginal field associated with the stigma of the languages it studied to a subfield which is now at the centre of linguistic enquiry. As it became clear that contact, far from being bizarre, has always been a normal part of the development of languages, from those of ancient empires to those of colonial expansion to those of our globalising planet today, pidgin and creole studies have merged with the study of other language contact phenomena (adult second language acquisition, bilingualism, bilingual mixed languages, language shift, partially restructured languages, language attrition, etc) to form the new field of contact linguistics.

This selection of the most important contributions advancing our understanding of language contact phenomena covers almost two hundred years of scholarship and will provide students with an overview of how insights about the new languages that emerged as a result of European expansion to Africa, Asia, the New World and the Pacific have led to a clearer view of what language is.

Articles are arranged chronologically; unusually for a Critical Concepts collection, each individual article is preceded by a short introduction making clear the intellectual context in which it was written, its thematic connection to earlier work, and why it is an important contribution to the field. As well as articles from scholarly journals, there are also some chapters from major books in the field. The collection is indexed for theme and language.

Contents

Volume I

1. Peter Stein, ‘The Documents Concerning the Negro Dutch Language of the Danish Virgin Islands, St Thomas, St Croix and St John—Negerhollands—in the Unitäts-Archiv (Archives of the Moravian Brethren) at Herrnhut: A Commented Bibliography’, Amsterdam Creole Studies, 9, 1986, 19–31.

2. J. M. Magens, Grammatica over det Creolske sprog, som bruges paa de trende Danske Eilande, St Croix, St Thomas og St Jans i Amerika (Samenskrevet og opsat af en paa St Thomas indföd Mand, Kiöbenhavn: Gerhard Giese Salikath, 1770) (trans. Peter Bakker, Hein van der Voort et al. as Grammar of the Creole Language as Used on the Three Danish Islands of St Croix, St Thomas and St John in America (compiled and written by a native of St Thomas)).

3. Glenn Gilbert, ‘Oldendorp’s History … and Other Early Creole Materials in the Moravian Archives in Herrnhut, East Germany’, Carrier Pidgin, 14, 1, 1986, pp. 5–7.

4. William Greenfield, A Defense of the Surinam Negro-English Version of the New Testament (Bagster, 1830) (reprinted in Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, 1, 2, 1986, 259–66.)

5. John E. Reinecke, ‘William Greenfield: A Neglected Pioneer Creolist’, in L. D. Carrington, D. Craig, and R. Todd Dandare (eds.), Studies in Caribbean Language (St Augustine, Trinidad, 1983), pp. 1–12.

6. Addison Van Name, ‘Contributions to Creole Grammar’, Transactions of the American Philological Association, 1, 1869–70, pp. 123–67.

7. António de Paula Brito, Dialectos crioulos-portugueses. Apontamentos para a gramática do crioulo que se fala na ilha de Santiago de Cabo Verde (1887) (republished in Jorge Morais Barbosa (ed.), Estudos Linguísticos Crioulos (Lisbon: Academia Internacional da Cultura Portugesa, 1967), pp. i–xx, 329–404 (translation).

8. Hugo Schuchardt, ‘Kreolische Studien. I. Über das Negerportugiesische von S. Thomé (Westafrika)’, Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien, 101, 2, 1882, 889–917 (trans. John Holm).

9. John Fought, ‘The Reinvention of Hugo Schuchardt’, Language in Society, 11, 1982, 419–36.

10. Glenn Gilbert, ‘The First Systematic Survey of the World’s Pidgins and Creoles: Hugo Schuchardt, 1882–1885’, in M. Sebba and L. Todd (eds.), Papers from the New York Creole Conference, 24–27 September 1983 (University of York: Department of Language, 1984), pp. 131–40.

11. Guus Meijer and Pieter Muysken (eds.), ‘On the Beginnings of Pidgin and Creole Studies: Schuchardt and Hesseling’, in A. Valdman, (ed.) Pidgin and Creole Linguistics (Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. 21–45.

12. Hugo Schuchardt, ‘Kreolische Studien. V. Ueber das Melanesoenglische’, Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien, 105, 1, 1883, 151–61, 1 (reprinted in Schuchardt, The Ethnography of Variation: Selected Writings on Pidgins and Creoles, ed. and trans. T. L. Markey (Karoma, 1979), pp. 18–25).

13. Hugo Schuchardt, ‘Beiträge zur Kenntnis des englischen Kreolisch II. Melanesoenglisches’, Englische Studien, 13, 1889, 158–62 (translated in Schuchardt, The Ethnography of Variation: Selected Writings on Pidgins and Creoles, ed. and trans. T. L. Markey (Karoma, 1979), pp. 7–14).

14. Hugo Schuchardt, ‘Beiträge zur Kenntnis des englischen Kreolisch I’, Englische Studien, 12, 1889, 470–4 (translated in Schuchardt, Pidgin and Creole Languages: Selected Essays, ed. and trans. G. G. Gilbert (Cambridge University Press, 1980), pp. 30–7).

15. Hugo Schuchardt, ‘Zum Negerholländischen von St Thomas’, Tijdschrift voor nederlandsche taal- en letterkunde, 33, 1914, 123–35 (in Schuchardt, The Ethnography of Variation: Selected Writings on Pidgins and Creoles, ed. and trans. T. L. Markey (Karoma, 1979), pp. 48–58).

16. Hugo Schuchardt, Die Sprache der Saramakkaneger in Surinam (Johannes Müller, 1914), pp. iii–xxxvi (in Schuchardt, The Ethnography of Variation: Selected Writings on Pidgins and Creoles, ed. and trans. T. L. Markey (Karoma, 1979), pp. 73–108).

17. Glenn G. Gilbert, ‘Hugo Schuchardt and the Atlantic Creoles: A Newly Discovered Manuscript "On the Negro English of West Africa"’ (includes an English translation of Schuchardt’s unpublished essay ‘Kreolische Studien X: Ueber das Negerenglische von Westafrika’, written 1892/3), American Speech, 60, 1, 1985, 31–63.

18. Alain Kihm, ‘Les difficiles débuts des études créoles en France (1870–1920)’, Langue française, 63, 1984, 42–56.

19. Pieter Muysken and Guus Meijer, ‘Introduction’ to D. C. Hesseling, On the Origin and Formation of Creoles: A Miscellany of Articles (ed. and trans. T. L. Markey and Paul T. Roberge) (Karoma, 1979), pp. vii–xix.

20. D. C. Hesseling, ‘Het Hollandsch in Zuid-Afrika’, De Gids, 60, 1, 1897, pp. 138–62 (reprinted in Hesseling, On the Origin and Formation of Creoles: A Miscellany of Articles (ed. and trans. T. L. Markey and Paul T. Roberge) (Karoma), pp. 1–22).

21. D. C. Hesseling, ‘Papiaments en Negerhollands’, Tijd, 52, 1933, pp. 265–88 (reprinted in Hesseling, On the Origin and Formation of Creoles: A Miscellany of Articles (ed. and trans. T. L. Markey and Paul T. Roberge) (Karoma, 1979), pp. 47–61).

22. D. C. Hesseling, ‘Hoe ontstond de eigenaardige vorm van het Kreools?’, Neophilologus, 18, 1933, 209–15 (reprinted in Hesseling, On the Origin and Formation of Creoles: A Miscellany of Articles (ed. and trans. T. L. Markey and Paul T. Roberge) (Karoma, 1979), pp. 62–70).

23. Franz Boas, ‘Note on the Chinook Jargon’, Language, 9, 2, 1933, 208–13.

Volume II

24. John E. Reinecke and Aiko Tokimasa, ‘The English Dialect of Hawaii’, American Speech, 9, 1934, 48–58, 122–31.

25. Charlene J. Sato and Aiko T. Reinecke, ‘John E. Reinecke: His Life and Work’, in G. Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke (University of Hawaii Press, 1987), pp. 3–22.

26. John E. Reinecke, ‘Foreword’ to A. Valdman (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Linguistics: Present State and Current Trends (Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. vii–xi.

27. Robert B. Le Page, ‘The Language Problem of the British Caribbean’, Caribbean Quarterly, 4, 1, 1955, 40–9.

28. Douglas R. Taylor, ‘Language Contacts in the West Indies’, Word, 13, 1956, 399–414.

29. Robert A. Hall, Jr., ‘Creole Languages and Genetic Relationships’, Word, 14, 1958, 367–73.

30. Robert B. Le Page, ‘General Outlines of Creole English Dialects in the British Caribbean’, Orbis, 6, 1957, 373–91; 7, 1958, 54–64.

31. Charles A. Ferguson, ‘Diglossia’, Word, 15, 1959, 325–40.

32. David DeCamp, ‘Social and Geographical Factors in Jamaican Dialects’, in R. B. Le Page (ed.), Creole Language Studies 2 (Macmillan, 1961), pp. 61–84.

33. Jan Voorhoeve, ‘Le ton et la grammaire dans le Saramaccan’, Word, 17, 1961, pp. 146–63.

34. R. W. Thompson, ‘A Note on Some Possible Affinities Between the Creole Dialects of the Old World and Those of the New’, in R. W. Le Page (ed.), Creole Language Studies 2 (Macmillan, 1961), pp. 107–13.

35. Robert A. Hall, Jr., ‘The Life Cycle of Pidgin Languages’, Lingua, 11, 1962, 151-6.

36. William A. Stewart, ‘Creole Languages in the Caribbean’, in F. A. Rice (ed.), Study of the Role of Second Languages in Asia, Africa and Latin America (Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC, 1962), pp. 34–53.

37. Douglas Taylor, ‘The Origin of West Indian Creole Languages: Evidence From Grammatical Categories’, American Anthropologist, 65, 1963, pp. 800–14.

38. Frederic G. Cassidy, ‘Toward the Recovery of Early English-African Pidgin’, Symposium on Multilingualism (Brazzaville) (Commission de coopération techniques en Afrique, Publication 87, Conseil Scientifique pour Afrique, London, 1964), pp. 267–77.

39. Beryl Loftman Bailey, ‘Toward a New Perspective in Negro English Dialectology’, American Speech, 40, 1965, 171–7 (reprinted in W. Wolfram and N. H Clarke (eds.), Black-White Speech Relationships (Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC), pp. 41–50).

40. Alexander Hull, ‘The Origins of New World French Phonology’, Word, 24, 1968, 255–69.

41. William Labov, ‘Contraction, Deletion and Inherent Variability of the English Copula’, Language, 45, 4, 1969, 715–51.

42. David DeCamp, ‘Toward a Generative Analysis of a Post-Creole Speech-continuum’, in D. Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 349–70.

43. Charles A. Ferguson, ‘Absence of Copula and the Notion of Simplicity: A Study of Normal Baby Talk, Foreigner Talk, and Pidgins’, in D. Hymes, (ed.) Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 141–50.

44. Douglas R. Taylor, ‘Grammatical and Lexical Affinities of Creoles’, in D. Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 293–6.

45. Keith Whinnom, ‘Linguistic Hybridization and the "Special Case" of Pidgins and Creoles’, in D. Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 91–115.

46. Jan Voorhoeve, ‘Historical and Linguistic Evidence in Favor of the Relexification Theory in the Formation of Creoles’, Language in Society, 2, 1973, pp. 133–45.

47. Derek Bickerton, ‘Creolization, Linguistic Universals, Natural Semantax and the Brain’, University of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics, 6, 3, 1974, pp. 124–41.

48. Paul Kay and Gillian Sankoff, ‘A Language-Universals Approach to Pidgins and Creoles’, in D. DeCamp and I. F. Hancock (eds.), Pidgins and Creoles (Georgetown University Press, 1974), pp. 61–72.

49. Jorge Morais-Barbosa, ‘Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Sao Tomé and Príncipe: The Linguistic Situation’, in M. Valkhoff et al. (eds.), Miscelânea Luso-Africana: colectânea de estudos coligidos (Junta de Investigaçtes Científicas de Ultramar, 1975), pp. 133–51.

50. Margot Faverey, Brenda Johns, and Fay Wouk, ‘The Historical Development of Locative and Existential Copula Constructions in Afro-Creole Languages’, in S. B. Steever, C. A. Walker, and S. S. Mufwene (eds.), Papers from the Parasession on Diachronic Syntax (Chicago Linguistic Society, 1976), pp. 88–95.

51. Gillian Sankoff and Penelope Brown, ‘The Origins of Syntax in Discourse: A Case Study of Tok Pisin Relatives’, Language, 2, 3, 1976, pp. 631–66.

52. Derek Bickerton, ‘Pidginization and Creolization: Language Acquisition and Language Universals’, in Albert Valdman (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Linguistics (Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. 49–69.

53. David DeCamp, ‘The Development of Pidgin and Creole Studies’, in A. Valdman (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Linguistics (Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. 3–20.

Volume III

54. John R. Rickford, ‘The Question of Prior Creolization in Black English’, in A. Valdman (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Linguistics: Present State and Current Trends (Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. 190–221.

55. Bert Jansen, Hilda Koopman, and Pieter Muysken, ‘Serial Verbs in the Creole Languages’, Amsterdam Creole Studies, 2, 1978, pp. 125–59.

56. J. L. Dillard, ‘Creole English and Creole Portuguese: The Early Records’, in I. F. Hancock (ed.), Readings in Creole Studies (Story-Scienta, 1979), pp. 261–8.

57. Alexander Hull, ‘On the Origin and Chronology of the French-Based Creoles’, in I. F. Hancock et al. (eds.), Readings in Creole Studies (Story-Scienta, 1979), pp. 201–16.

58. Ian R. Smith, ‘Convergence in South Asia: A Creole Example’, Lingua, 48, 1979, 193–222.

59. Ian F. Hancock, ‘Lexical Expansion in Creole Languages’, in A. Valdman and A. Highfield, (eds.), Theoretical Orientations in Creole Studies (Academic, 1980), pp. 63–88.

60. Luiz Ferraz and Anthony Traill, ‘The Interpretation of Tone in Principense Creole’, Studies in African Linguistics, 12, 2, 1981, 205–15.

61. George L. Huttar, ‘Some Kwa-like Features of Djuka Syntax’, Studies in African Linguistics, 12, 2, 1981, 291–323.

62. William Labov, ‘Objectivity and Commitment in Linguistic Science: The Case of the Black English Trial in Ann Arbor’, Language in Society, 11, 1982, pp. 165–201.

63. T. L. Markey, ‘Afrikaans: Creole or Non-creole?’, Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 2, 1982, 169–207.

64. Yves Dejean, ‘Diglossia Revisited: French and Creole in Haiti’, Word, 34, 3, 1983, 189–204.

65. Albert Valdman, ‘Creolization and Second Language Acquisition’, in R. Anderson (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization as Language Acquisition (Newbury House, 1983), pp. 212–34.

66. Philip Baker, ‘The Significance of Agglutinated French Articles in the Creole Languages of the Indian Ocean and Elsewhere’, in M. Sebba, and L. Todd (eds.), Papers from the New York Creole Conference, 24–27 September 1983 (University of York: Department of Language, 1984), pp. 19–29.

67. Ingvild Broch and Ernst Håkon Jahr, ‘Russennorsk: A New Look at the Russian-Norwegian Pidgin in Northern Norway’, in P. S. Ureland and I. Clarksin (eds.), Scandinavian Language Contacts (Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 21–65.

68. Ian Hancock, ‘Romani and Anglo-Romani’, in P. Trudgill (ed.), Language in the British Isles (Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 367–83.

69. John Holm, ‘Variability of the Copula in Black English and its Creole Kin’, American Speech, 59, 4, 1984, 291–309.

70. Hilda Koopman, ‘The Genesis of Haitian: Implications of a Comparison of Some Features of the Syntax of Haitian, French and West African Languages’, in P. Muysken and N. Smith (eds.), Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis (John Benjamins, 1986), pp. 231–58.

71. Pieter Muysken and Norval Smith, ‘Introduction’, Substrata Versus Universals in Creole Genesis (John Benjamins, 1986), pp. 1–12.

72. John Rickford, ‘Social Contact and Linguistic Diffusion: Hiberno English and New World Black English’, Language, 62, 2, 1986, 245–89.

73. Sarah G. Thomason and Alaa Elgibali, ‘Before the Lingua Franca: Pidginized Arabic in the Eleventh Century AD’, Lingua, 68, 1986, pp. 407–39.

74. Morris F. Goodman, ‘The Portuguese Element in the American Creoles’, in G. Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke (University of Hawaii Press, 1987), pp. 361–405.

75. Ian F. Hancock, ‘A Preliminary Classification of the Anglophone Atlantic Creoles’, in Glenn Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke (University of Hawaii Press, 1987), pp. 264–334.

Volume IV

76. Luiz Ivens Ferraz, ‘Portuguese Creoles of West Africa and Asia’, in G. Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke (University of Hawaii Press, 1987), pp. 337–60.

77. Roger M. Keesing, Melanesian Pidgin and the Oceanic Substrate (Stanford University Press, 1988), pp. 89–132.

78. Sarah G.. Thomason and Terrence Kaufman, ‘Contact-Induced Language Change: An Analytic Framework’, in S. G. Thomason and Terrence Kaufman, Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics (University of California Press, 1988), pp. 34–64.

79. Ralph Ludwig, ‘L’oralité des langues créoles—agrégation et intégration’, in R. Ludwig (ed.), Les créoles français (Narr, 1989), pp. 13–39.

80. Guy Hazaël-Massieux, ‘Peut-on caractériser un créole par sa morphosyntaxe? Verbe et groupe verbal dans les créoles français’, Les créoles. Problèmes de genèse et de description (Publication de l’Université de Provence, 1996), pp. 45–60.

81. Jacques Arends, ‘Towards a Gradualist Model of Creolization’, in F. Byrne and J. Holm (eds.), Atlantic Meets Pacific (John Benjamins, 1993), pp. 371–80.

82. Annegret Bollée and Ingrid Neumann-Holzschuh, ‘Pour une grammaire historique des créoles’, in: J. Schmidt-Radefeldt and A. Harder (eds.), Sprachwandel und Sprachgeschichte. Festschrift für Helmut Lüdtke zum 65. Geburtstag (Narr, 1993), pp. 9–21.

83. Norbert Boretzky, ‘The Concept of Rule, Rule Borrowing, and Substrate Influence in Creole Languages’, in S. Mufwene (ed.), Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties (University of Georgia Press, 1993), pp. 74–92.

84. Claire Lefebvre, ‘The Role of Relexification and Syntactic Reanalysis in Haitian Creole: Methodological Aspects of a Research Program’, in S. Mufwene (ed.), Africanisms in Afro-America Language Varieties (University of Georgia Press, 1993), pp. 254–79.

85. Gerardo Lorenzino, ‘African vs Austronesian Substrate Influence on the Spanish-based Creoles’, in F. Byrne and J. Holm, Atlantic Meets Pacific: A Global View of Pidginization and Creolization (John Benjamins, 1993), pp. 399–408.

86. Edgar W. Schneider, ‘Africanisms in the Grammar of Afro-American English: Weighing the Evidence’, in S. Mufwene (ed.), Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties (University of Georgia Press, 1993), pp. 209–21.

87. Peter Bakker and Pieter Muysken, ‘Mixed Languages and Language Intertwining’, in J. Arends, P. Muysken, and N. Smith (eds.), Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction (John Benjamins, 1995), pp. 41–52.

88. Jacques Arends, ‘Demographic Factors in the Formation of Sranan’, in J. Arends (ed.), The Early Stages of Creolization (Philadelphia, 1995), pp. 233–85.

89. Chris Corne, ‘A Contact-induced and Vernacularized Language: How Melanesian is Tayo?’, in P. Baker (ed.), From Contact to Creoles and Beyond (University of Westminster Press, 1995), pp. 121–48.

90. Norval Smith, ‘An Annotated List of Creoles, Pidgins and Mixed Languages’, in J. Arends, P. Muysken, and N. Smith (eds.), Pidgins and Creoles (John Benjamins, 1995), pp. 331–74.

91. Salikoko S. Mufwene, ‘The Founder Principle in Creole Genesis’, Diachronica 13, 1996, pp. 83–134.

92. Peter Bakker and Robert A. Papen, ‘Michif: A Mixed Language Based on Cree and French’, in Sarah G. Thomason (ed.), Contact Languages: A Wider Perspective (John Benjamins, 1997), pp. 295–363.

Volume V

93. Michel DeGraff, ‘Verb Syntax in, and Beyond, Creolization’, in L. Haegemann (ed.), The New Comparative Syntax (Longman, 1997), pp. 64–94.

94. Sarah G. Thomason, ‘A Typology of Contact Languages’, in A. Spears and D. Winford (eds.), Pidgins and Creoles: Structure and Status (John Benjamins, 1997), pp. 71–88.

95. Bettina Migge, ‘Substrate Influence in Creole Formation: The Origin of Give-type Serial Verb Constructions in the Surinamese Plantation Creole’, JPCL, 13, 2, 1998, 215–65.

96. Philip Baker and Magnus Huber, ‘Atlantic, Pacific, and World-Wide Features in English-Lexicon Contact Languages’, English World-Wide, 22, 2, 2001, 157–208.

97. Robert Chaudenson, ‘ Toward a Theory of Creolization: The Sociohistorical and Sociolinguistic Approach’, Creolization of Language and Culture, revised in collaboration with Salikoko S. Mufwene (Routledge, 2001), pp. 53–141.

98. John McWhorter, ‘The World’s Simplest Grammars are Creole Grammars’, Linguistic Typology, 5, 2–3, 2001, 125–66.

99. Susanne Michaelis and Martin Haspelmath, ‘Ditransitive Constructions: Creole Languages in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective’, Creolica (creolica.net, 23 May 2003).

100. Donald Winford, ‘Group Second Language Acquisition or Language Shift’, in D. Winford, An Introduction to Contact Linguistics (Blackwell, 2003), pp. 235–56.

101. John Holm, ‘Conclusions’, Languages in Contact: The Partial Restructuring of Vernaculars (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 135–46.

102. Jeff Siegel, ‘Morphological Elaboration’, JPCL, 19, 2, 2004, 333–62.

103. Annegret Bollée, ‘Lexicographie créole: problèmes et perspectives’, Revue française de linguistique appliquée, 10, 1, 2005, 53–63.

104. Thomas Klein, ‘Creole Phonology Typology: Phoneme Inventory Size, Vowel Quality Distinctions and Stop Consonant Series’, in P. Bhatt and I. Plag (eds.), The Structure of Creole Words (Niemeyer, 2006), pp. 3–21.

105. Ingo Plag and Mareile Schramm, ‘Early Creole Syllable Structure: A Cross-linguistic Survey of the Earliest Attested Varieties of Saramaccan, Sranan, St. Kitts and Jamaican’, in P. Bhatt and I. Plag (eds.), The Structure of Creole Words (Niemeyer, 2006), pp. 131–50.

Name: Contact Languages (Hardback)Routledge 
Description: Edited by John Holm, Susanne Michaelis. Contact has always been a normal part of the development of languages, from those of ancient empires, those of colonial expansion, and to those of our globalizing planet today. Pidgin and creole studies have merged with the study of other language...
Categories: Language & Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics