Politics of Modern Turkey
Edited by Ali Carkoglu, William Hale
Routledge – 2008 – 1,680 pages
The Politics of Modern Turkey is a new four-volume Major Work from Routledge. The first volume of the collection (‘Historical Heritage of Politics in Modern Turkey’) brings together key research to provide a historical contextualization of modern Turkish political experience. This volume traces the sizeable literature that uses historical sociology as its basis to underline the continuities and breakdowns in key political areas of the transition from the Ottoman Empire to the modern Republican era, especially with reference to cultural, institutional, and elite politics perspectives covering the Ottoman and the single-party period (1923–50). The Tanzimat reforms as they relate to the Republican regime’s ground-breaking changes of the early 1930s are emphasized, as is the process of transition to a multi-party democracy after the Second World War. The volume also gathers a number of essays on the nature of ideological currents influential in contemporary Turkish politics, taking in Kemalist, Islamist conservative, and nationalist orientations, as well as Turkish versions of liberalism.
The second volume of the collection (‘Political Institutions and Processes’) presents the best research which depicts and evaluates constitutional changes, ending with recent amendments aimed at fulfilling the Copenhagen political criteria for EU membership. Volume II also includes vital material highlighting the character and functioning of the executive branch, the bureaucracy, and parliament. Seminal essays describing and analysing the 1960 and 1980 coups and the 1971 coup-by-memorandum, as well as the so-called ‘postmodern’ coup of 1997. Other topics covered include: the nature of public policymaking and the operation of patronage networks; the party system and electoral laws; social mobilization and trends in political participation; interest and pressure-group activity; and the political role of the military.
The material gathered in Volume III (‘Modern Turkey’s Foreign Policy’) addresses the historical development of foreign policymaking institutions, and the policymaking system. A historical section explores foreign policy under Kemal Atatürk and Ismet Inönü, through to the Cold War and post-Cold War periods. Regionally, the following areas are covered: Turkey’s broad geo-strategic situation; Turkish–American relations; Turkey and the European Union; Turkey’s relations with the Middle Eastern countries; Greek–Turkish relations and the Cyprus problem; and Turkey’s relations with the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet republics in Transcaucasia and central Asia, and Russia.
The final volume of the collection (‘Major Issues and Themes in Contemporary Turkish Politics’) is focused on a number of issues that have gained increasing salience over the last two decades. Topics include: democratization, and the politics of the EU membership process; identity issues, especially religiosity and the rising salience of pro-Islamist movements; ethnicity and the politics of the Kurdish minority; women in Turkish politics; political–economic interactions; and political performance and governance.
With an introduction newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, The Politics of Modern Turkey is an essential collection destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
Volume I: Historical Heritage of Politics in Modern Turkey
Part 1: Historical Roots
1. Halil Inalcik, ‘The Nature of Traditional Society: Turkey’, in R. E. Ward and D. A. Rustow (eds.), Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey (Princeton University Press, 1964), pp. 3–24.
2. Halil Inalcik, ‘Tanzimat Nedir? (What is Tanzimat?)’, in H. Inalcik and M. Seyitdanliogu (eds.), Turkish in Tanzimat, Degisim Sürecinde Osmanli Impoaratorlugu (Phoenix Publications, 2006), pp. 13–33.
3. D. Lerner, ‘The Grocer and the Chief: A Parable’, The Passing of the Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East (Free Press, 1958), pp. 19–42.
4. Kemal H. Karpat, ‘The Transformation of the Ottoman State, 1789–1908’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 3, 1972, pp. 243–81.
5. Serif Mardin, ‘Center Periphery Relations: A Key to Turkish Politics?’, Deadalus, 2(1), 1973, pp. 169–90.
6. Çaglar Keyder, ‘The Political Economy of Turkish Democracy’, New Left Review, 115, 1979, pp. 3–44.
7. Sunar Ilkay, ‘Populism and Patronage: The Demokrat Party and its Legacy in Turkey’, Il Politico, LV, 4, 1990, pp. 745–57.
Part 2: Kemalism
8. Suna Kili, ‘Kemalism in Contemporary Turkey’, International Political Science Review, 1, 3, 1980, pp. 381–404.
9. Resat Kasaba, ‘Kemalist Certainties and Modern Ambiguities’, in Sibel Bozdogan and Resat Kasaba (eds.), Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey (University of Washington Press, 1997), pp. 15–36.
Part 3: Nationalism
10. Hugh Poulton, ‘The Top Hat: Secular Kemalist Nationalism’, Top Hat, Grey Wolf and Crescent, Turkish Nationalism and the Turkish Republic (NYU Press, 1997), pp. 87–129.
11. Jacob M. Landau, ‘The Ups and Downs of Irredentism: The Case of Turkey’, in Naomi Chazan (ed.), Irredentism and International Politics (Lynne Riener Publishers, 1991), pp. 81–96.
12. Andrew Mango, ‘Remembering the Minorities’, Middle Eastern Studies, 21, 4, 1985, pp. 118–40.
Part 4: Political Culture and Education
13. Ergun Özbudun, ‘State Elites and Democratic Culture in Turkey’, in Larry Diamond (ed.), Political Culture and Democracy in Developing Countries (Lynne Riener Publishers, 1993), pp. 247–68.
14. Joseph S. Szyliowicz, ‘Education and Political Development’, in Metin Heper and Ahmet Evin (eds.), Politics in the Third Turkish Republic (Westview Press, 1994), pp. 147–59.
15. Mark Tessler and Ebru Altinoglu, ‘Political Culture in Turkey: Connections Among Attitudes Toward Democracy, the Military and Islam’, Democratization, 11, 1, 2004, pp. 21–50.
16. Ilter Turan, ‘Religion and Political Culture in Turkey’, in Richard Tapper (ed.), Islam in Modern Turkey: Religion, Politics and Literature in a Secular State (I. B. Tauris, 1991), pp. 31–55.
Volume II: Political Institutions and Processes
Part 5: Constitutional Framework
17. Ergun Özbudun, ‘The Politics of Constitution Making’, Contemporary Turkish Politics: Challenges to Democratic Consolidation (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000), pp. 49–72.
Part 6: Executive
18. Ergun Özbudun, ‘The Status of the President of the Republic Under the Turkish Constitution of 1982: Presidentialism or Parliamentarism?’, in M. Heper and A. Evin (eds.), State, Democracy and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s (Walter de Gruyter, 1988), pp. 37–45.
Part 7: Bureaucracy
19. David Barchard, ‘Society and Bureaucracy: The Civil Service’, in B. Beeley (ed.), Turkish Transformation: New Century-New Challenges (The Eothen Press, 2002), pp. 198–219.
Part 8: Parliament
20. Ersin Kalaycioglu, ‘Cyclical Development, Redesign, and Nascent Institutionalization of a Legislative System’, in Ulrike Liebert and Maurizio Cotta (eds.), Parliament and Democratic Consolidation in Southern Europe (Pinter, 1990), pp. 184–222.
Part 9: Party System
21. Ali Çarkoglu, ‘Turkish Party System in Transition: Party Performance and Agenda Change’, Political Studies, XLVI, 1998, pp. 544–71.
22. Frank Tachau, ‘Turkish Political Parties and Elections: Half a Century of Multiparty Democracy, Turkish Studies, 1, 1 2000, pp. 128–48.
23. Sabri Sayari, ‘The Changing Party System’, in Sabri Sayari and Yilmaz Esmer (eds.), Politics, Parties and Elections in Turkey (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002), pp. 9–32.
Part 10: Elections, Voting
24. Cem Baslevent, Hasan Kirmanoglu and Burhan Senatalar, ‘Voter Profiles and Fragmentation in the Turkish Party System’, Party Politics, 10(3), 2004, pp. 307–24.
25. Yilmaz Esmer, ‘At the Ballot-Box: Determinants of Voting Behaviour in Turkey’, in Sabri Sayari and Yilmaz Esmer (eds.), Politics, Parties and Elections in Turkey (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001), pp. 91–114.
26. W. Jefferson West, ‘Regional Cleavages in Turkish Politics: An Electoral Geography of the 1999 and 2002 National Elections’, Political Geography, 24, 4, 2005, pp. 499–523.
27. Ersin Kalaycioglu, ‘Unconventional Political Participation in Turkey and Europe: Comparative Perspectives’, Il Politico, LIX, 3, 1994, pp. 503–23.
Part 11: Interest Group Politics, Civil Society
28. Çigdem Adem, ‘Non-State Actors and Environmentalism’, in F. Adaman and M. Arsel (eds.), Environmentalism in Turkey: Between Democracy and Development? (Ashgate, 2005), pp. 71–86.
29. E. Fuat Keyman and Ahmet Icduygu, ‘Globalization, Civil Society and Citizenship in Turkey: Actors, Boundaries and Discourses’, Citizenship Studies, 7, 2, 2003, pp. 219–34.
30. Ziya Önis and Türem Umut, ‘Business, Globalization and Democracy: A Comparative Analysis of Turkish Business Associations’, Turkish Studies, 2, 2, 2001, pp. 94–120.
Part 12: The Military
31. Tanel Demirel, ‘The Turkish Military's Decision to Intervene: 12 September 1980’, Armed Forces & Society, 29, 2, 2003, pp. 253–80.
32. Metin Heper, ‘The Justice and Development Party Government and the Military in Turkey’, Turkish Studies, 6, 2, 2005, pp. 215–31.
33. Ümit Cizre, ‘Problems of Democratic Governance of Civil-Military Relations in Turkey and the European Union Enlargement Zone’, European Journal of Political Research, 43, 1, 2004, pp. 107–25.
34. William M Hale, ‘Turkish Politics and the Military: A Comparative Analysis’,
Turkish Politics and the Military (Routledge, 1994), pp. 301–36.
Volume III: Modern Turkey’s Foreign Policy
Part 13: Historical Background
35. Feroz Ahmad, ‘The Late Ottoman Empire’, in Marian Kent (ed.), The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 2nd edn. (Frank Cass, 1996), pp. 5–30.
36. Roderic H. Davison, ‘Turkish Diplomacy from Mudros to Lausanne’, in Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert (eds.), The Diplomats, 1919–1939, Vol. I (Atheneum, 1974), pp. 172–209.
37. Bruce R. Kuniholm, ‘The Turkish Context’, Origins of the Cold War in the Near East: Great Power Conflict and Diplomacy in Iran, Turkey and Greece (Princeton University Press, 1980), pp. 6–72.
38. William Hale, ‘Turkey’, in Yezid Sayigh and Avi Shlaim (eds.), The Cold War and the Middle East (Clarendon Press, 1997), pp. 250–78.
Part 14: Cyprus and Greek–Turkish Relations
39. Clement H. Dodd, ‘Cyprus in Turkish Politics and Foreign Policy’, in Clement H. Dodd (ed.), Cyprus: The Need for New Perspectives (Eothen Press, 1999), pp. 128–47.
40. Bahçeli, Tozun, ‘Turkish Policy Toward Greece’, in Alan Makovsky and Sabri Sayari (eds.), Turkey’s New World: Changing Dynamics in Turkish Foreign Policy (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000), pp. 131–52.
Part 15: Turkey’s Relations with the USA, Russia, and Eurasia
41. F. Stephen Larrabee and Ian O. Lesser, ‘Turkey and the United States’, in Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty (Rand Corporation, 2003), pp. 159–85.
42. Oktay F. Tanrisever, ‘Turkey and Russia in Eurasia’, in Lenore G. Martin and Dimitris Keridis (eds.), The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy (MIT Press, 2004), pp. 127–56.
43. Gareth Winrow, ‘Turkey and the Newly Independent States of Central Asia and the Caucasus’, in Barry Rubin and Kemal Kirisci (eds.), Turkey in World Politics: An Emerging Multiregional Power (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001), pp. 173–88.
Part 16: The Kurdish Question and Turkey’s Policy Towards the Middle East
44. Kemal Kirisci, ‘The Kurdish Question and Turkish Foreign Policy’, in Lenore G. Martin and Dimitris Keridis (eds.), The Future of Turkish Foreign Policy (MIT Press, 2004), pp. 277–314.
45. Saban Kardas, ‘Turkey and the Iraqi Crisis’, in M. Hakan Yavuz (ed.), The Emergence of a New Turkey (University of Utah Press, 2006), pp. 306–30.
46. Kemal Kirisci, ‘Between Europe and the Middle East: The Transformation of Turkish Policy’, MERIA Journal, 8, 1, 2004, pp. 657–78.
Part 17: Turkey and the EU
47. Kemal Kirisci, ‘The December 2004 European Council Decision on Turkey: Is it an Historic Turning Point?’, MERIA Journal, 8, 4, 2004, pp. 88–94
48. Heinz Kramer, ‘Europe Still the "Desired Land?"’, A Changing Turkey: The Challenge to Europe and the United States (Brookings Institution, 2000), pp. 181–201.
Part 18: Foreign Policy Since 2002
49. Philip Robins. 2007 ‘Turkish Foreign Policy Since 2002: Between a "Post-Islamist" Government and a Kemalist State’, International Affairs, 83, 1, pp. 289–304.
Volume IV: Major Issues and Themes in Contemporary Turkish Politics
Part 19: Democratization, Politics of the EU Membership Process
50. Gamze Avci, ‘Turkish Political Parties and the EU Discourse in the Post-Helsinki Period: A Case of Europeanization’, in Mehmet Ugur and Nergis Canefe (eds.), Turkey and European Integration (Routledge, 2004) pp. 194–214.
51. Ziya Onis, ‘Turkey, Europe, and Paradoxes of Identity: Perspectives on the International Context of Democratization’, Mediterranean Quarterly, 10, 3, 1999, pp. 107–36.
52. Nergis Canefe and Tanil Bora, ‘The Intellectual Roots of Anti-European Sentiments in Turkish Politics: The Case of Radical Turkish Nationalism’, Turkish Studies, 4, 1, 2003, pp. 127–48.
53. Nathalie Tocci, ‘Europeanization in Turkey: Trigger or Anchor for Reform?’, South European Society & Politics, 10, 1, 2005, pp. 73–83.
Part 20: Identity Issues 1: Religiosity and the Rising Salience of Pro-Islamist Movements
54. Yesim Arat, ‘Group-Differentiated Rights and the Liberal Democratic State: Rethinking the Headscarf Controversy in Turkey’, New Perspectives on Turkey, 25, 2001, pp. 31–46.
55. Sencer Ayata, ‘Patronage, Party and State-The Politicization of Islam in Turkey’, Middle East Journal, 50, 1, 1996, pp. 40–56.
56. Faruk Birtek and Binnaz Toprak, ‘The Conflictual Agendas of Neo-Liberal Reconstruction and The Rise of Islamic Politics in Turkey: The Hazards of Rewriting Modernity’, Praxis International, 13, 1993, pp. 192–212.
57. Ali Çarkoglu, ‘Religiosity, Support for Seriat and Evaluations of Secularist Public Policies in Turkey’, Middle Eastern Studies, 40, 2, 2004, pp. 111–36.
58. Ihsan Dagi, ‘Transformation of Islamic Political Identity in Turkey: Rethinking the West and Westernization’, Turkish Studies, 6, 1, 2005, pp. 21–37.
59. Nilüfer Göle, ‘Secularism and Islamism in Turkey: The Making of Elites and Counter Elites’, Middle East Journal, 51, 1, 1997, pp. 46–58.
60. Bedriye Poyraz, ‘The Turkish State and Alevis: Changing Parameters of an Uneasy Relationship’, Middle Eastern Studies, 41, 4, 2005, pp. 503–16.
61. Rusen Çakir, ‘Political Alevism Versus Political Sunnism: Convergences and Divergences’, in T. Olsson et al. (eds.), Alevi Identity (Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, 1998), pp. 63–8.
Part 21: Identity Issues 2: Ethnicity and the Politics of the Kurdish Minority
62. M. Hakan Yavuz and Nihat Ali Özcan, ‘The Kurdish Question and Turkey’s Justice and Development Party’, Middle East Policy, 13, 1, 2006, pp. 102–19.
63. Mesut Yegen, ‘Citizenship and Ethnicity in Turkey’, Middle Eastern Studies, 40, 6, 2004, pp. 51–66.
64. Aylin Güney, ‘The People’s Democracy Party’, Turkish Studies, 3, 1, 2002, pp. 122–37.
Part 22: Identity Issues 3: Women in Turkish Politics
65. Yesim Arat, ‘From Emancipation to Liberation: The Changing Role of Women in Turkey’s Public Realm’, Journal of International Affairs, 54, 1, 2000, pp. 107–23.
Part 23: Policy-Making, Political Economic Interactions, Patronage
66. Ümit Cizre-Sakallioglu and Erinç Yeldan, ‘Politics, Society and Financial Liberalization: Turkey in the 1990s’, Development and Change, 31, 2, 2000, pp. 481–508.
67. Metin Heper and E. Fuat Keyman, ‘Double-Faced State: Political Patronage and the Consolidation of Democracy in Turkey’, Middle Eastern Studies, 34, 4, 1998, pp. 259–77.
68. Ziya Önis, ‘Domestic Politics Versus Global Dynamics: Towards a Political Economy of the 2000 and 2001 Financial Crises in Turkey’, Turkish Studies, 4, 2, 2003, pp. 1–30.
69. Mine Eder, ‘Political Economy of Agricultural reforms in Turkey’, in Ahmet Insel (ed.), La Turquie et le developpement (L’Harmattan, 2003), pp. 211–44.