Edited by Andrew Crisell
Routledge – 2009 – 1,278 pages
Over the last sixty years or so academic interest in the mass media has burgeoned. It is not, perhaps, surprising that this interest at first focused principally on the visual media of film and television, where it has remained intensive. Nevertheless, serious thinking about radio soon followed. Despite its apparent limitations, were there some advantages that radio enjoyed over the visual media? In what ways, for instance, could it mediate genres like drama and sport, which traditionally depended for their effectiveness on spectacle? Scholars have also examined radio’s use of words in comparison with both the image-dominated media of film and television, and the spatial, stable medium of print. Questions in radio studies also abound about the special qualities of sound per se—such as the meaning and functions of music and the ontology of pure sound artefacts known as ‘soundscapes’, a mainstay of much experimental radio.
Other lines of inquiry in the field have included investigations into the social, political, and cultural contexts of radio, prompted by questions about, for example, how broadcasting should be financed and regulated, and what purposes it should serve. And, more recently, radio researchers have grappled with notions of ‘community’, whether defined by geographical proximity or by commonality of identity or interest. Furthermore, the growth of new media technologies has profound implications for sound broadcasting. How will webcasting and podcasting modify or even transform radio? Indeed, does the growth of interactivity, including audience-generated content, and of time-shifted listening, mean the end of radio as we currently know it?
As research on and around these kinds of question continues to flourish as never before, this new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of a rapidly growing and ever more complex corpus of literature, and to provide a map of the area as it has emerged and developed. It is a four-volume collection of foundational and the best cutting-edge scholarship in the field and is organized in three volumes.
Volume I (‘Radio Theory and Genres’) assembles the key work theorizing the medium and its different kinds of contents, most notably news, drama, and ‘talk’. Much of the work gathered here is comparative, setting radio and its genres in the context of the visual media of film, television, and theatre, or the ‘visible’ media of newspapers and books. But the volume also includes linguistic analyses of broadcast talk and work that sees music as in some sense ‘radiogenic’ and traces its relationship to popular culture. The first volume also includes the best theoretical work exploring abstract sound and ‘soundscapes’.
Volume II (‘History and Institutions’) collects the most important work tracing the political evolution of sound broadcasting. Key topics include: the development of the philosophy of public service; issues of policy, notably (de)regulation and competition; and key historical phenomena such as the challenges posed by television, the arrival of the transistor, stereophony and FM broadcasting, the proliferation of wirelesses in cars, and the shift from mixed to streamed broadcasting.
Drawing on a wide range of international sources, the final volume of the collection (‘Audiences, Identities, and Communities; and Technological Developments’) assembles the best scholarship not only on general radio audiences and their patterns of consumption, but also focuses on the particular communities that radio seeks to address, whether geographic, ethnic-, or interest-based. Volume III also includes research on new technology, especially in its latest manifestations in forms such as webcasting.
Radio is fully indexed and has a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. It is an essential work of reference and is destined to be valued by scholars and students of media and cultural studies, as well as those engaged in more specialized radio courses, as a vital one-stop research resource.
Volume I: Radio Theory and Genres
Part 1: General
1. Bertolt Brecht, ‘Radio as a Means of Communication: A Talk on the Function of Radio’, Screen, 20, 3/4, 1979–80, 24–8.
2. Rudolf Arnheim, ‘Television’, in Radio, trans. M. Ludwig and H. Read (Faber and Faber, 1936), pp. 276–82.
Part 2: Talk/Speech
3. Gunther Kress, ‘Language in the Media: The Construction of the Domains of Public and Private’, Media, Culture and Society, 8, 4, 1986, 395–419.
4. Ian Hutchby, ‘The Organization of Talk on Talk Radio’, in P. Scannell (ed.), Broadcast Talk (Sage, 1991), pp. 119–37.
5. K. Atkinson and S. Moores, ‘"We All Have Bad Bad Days": Attending to Face in Broadcast Troubles Talk’, Radio Journal, 1, 2, 2003, 129–46.
6. Terry Flew, ‘A Medium for Mateship: Commercial Talk Radio in Australia’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 229–46.
7. Martin Montgomery, ‘DJ Talk’, Media, Culture and Society, 8, 4, 1986, 421–40.
Part 3: News
8. P. Moss, ‘Words, Words, Words: Radio News Discourses and How They Work, European Journal of Communication, 3, 2, 1988, 207–30.
9. A. Dunn, ‘Telling the Story: Narrative and Radio News’, Radio Journal, 1, 2, 2003, 113–27.
10. Martin Montgomery, ‘Broadcast News, the Live "Two-Way" and the Case of Andrew Gilligan’, Media, Culture and Society, 28, 2, 233–59.
Part 4: Documentary
11. Virginia M. Madsen, ‘Radio and the Documentary Imagination: Thirty Years of Experiment, Innovation and Revelation’, Radio Journal, 3, 3, 2005, 189–98.
12. David Hendy, ‘Reality Radio: the Documentary’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 167–88.
Part 5: Drama
13. Richard Hughes, ‘The Second Revolution: Literature and Radio’, Virginia Quarterly Review, 23, 1, 1947, 34–43.
14. D. McWhinnie, ‘The Nature of the Medium: The Experience’, The Art of Radio (Faber and Faber, 1959), pp. 21–44.
15. Frances Gray, ‘The Nature of Radio Drama’, in P. Lewis (ed.), Radio Drama (Longman, 1981), pp. 48–77.
16. Andrew Crisell, ‘Better than Magritte: How Drama on the Radio Became Radio Drama’, Journal of Radio Studies, 7, 2, 2000, 464–73.
17. Erving Goffman, ‘The Theatrical Frame’, in Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience (Harper and Row, 1974), pp. 144–9.
18. Elke Huwiler, ‘Storytelling by Sound: A Theoretical Frame for Radio Drama Analysis’, Radio Journal, 3, 1, 2005, 45–59.
Part 6: Comedy
19. Andrew Crisell, ‘Comedy and Light Entertainment’, Understanding Radio (Routledge, 1994), pp. 164–82.
20. Andreas Hepp, ‘Radio and Popular Culture in Germany: Radio Culture between Comedy and "Event-isation"’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 189–212.
Part 7: Music
21. Frank A. Biocca, ‘The Pursuit of Sound: Radio, Perception and Utopia in the Early Twentieth Century’, Media, Culture and Society, 10, 1, 1988, 61–79.
22. Paddy Scannell, ‘Sincerity’, Radio, Television and Modern Life (Blackwell, 1996), pp. 58–69.
23. Jarl A. Ahlkvist, ‘Programming Philosophies and the Rationalization of Music Radio’, Media, Culture and Society, 23, 3, 2001, 339–58.
Part 8: Avant Garde/Abstract Sound/Soundscapes
24. Joe Milutis, ‘Radiophonic Ontologies and the Avantgarde’, in Allen S. Weiss (ed.), Experimental Sound and Radio (MIT Press, 2001), pp. 57–72.
25. Mark E.Cory, ‘Soundplay: The Polyphonous Tradition of German Radio Art’, in D. Kahn and G. Whitehead (eds.), Wireless Imagination: Sound, Radio, and the Avant-Garde (MIT Press, 1994), pp. 331–71.
26. Martin Shingler, ‘Some Recurring Features of European Avant-Garde Radio’, Journal of Radio Studies, 7, 1, 2000, 196–212.
27. Douglas Kahn, ‘Three Receivers’, in Allen S. Weiss (ed.), Experimental Sound and Radio (MIT Press, 2001), pp. 73–80.
Volume II: History and Institutions
28. M. Friedewald, ‘The Beginnings of Radio Communication in Germany, 1897–1918’, Journal of Radio Studies, 7, 2, 2000, 441–63.
29. Seán Street, ‘The Prehistory of Wireless, 1838–1922’, A Concise History of British Radio, 1922-2002 (Tiverton: Kelly Publications, 2002), pp. 11–24.
30. Paddy Scannell, ‘Public Service Broadcasting: the History of a Concept’, in A. Goodwin and P. Whannel (eds.), Understanding Television (Routledge, 1990), pp. 11–29.
31. Simon Frith, ‘The Pleasures of the Hearth: the Making of BBC Light Entertainment’, in J. Donald et al. (eds.), Formations of Pleasure (Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1983), pp. 101–23.
32. Michele Hilmes, ‘British Quality, American Chaos: Historical Dualisms and What They Leave Out’, Radio Journal, 1, 1, 2003, 13–27.
33. B. Griffen-Foley, ‘The Birth of a Hybrid: the Shaping of the Australian Radio Industry’, Radio Journal, 2, 3, 2004, 153–69.
34. V. Camporesi, ‘The BBC and American Broadcasting, 1922–55’, Media, Culture and Society, 16, 4, 1994, 625–39.
35. David Cardiff, ‘The Serious and the Popular: Aspects of the Evolution of Style in the Radio Talk, 1928–1939, Media, Culture and Society, 2, 1, 1980, 29–47.
36. Michele Hilmes, ‘Front Line Family: "Women’s Culture" Comes to the BBC’, Media, Culture and Society, 29, 1, 2007, 5–29.
37. David Cardiff and Paddy Scannell, ‘Radio in World War II’, Open University, U203, Popular Culture, Block 2, Unit 8, 1981, pp. 34–41 and 60–78.
38. P. Long, ‘British Radio and the Politics of Culture in Post-War Britain: The Work of Charles Parker’, Radio Journal, 2, 3, 2004, 131–52.
39. F. Gillard, ‘Sound Radio in the Television Age’, BBC Lunch-time Lectures, 2nd series, No. 6, 11 Mar. 1964.
40. Ian Trethowan, ‘Radio in the Seventies’, BBC Lunch-time Lectures, 8th series, No. 4, 5 Mar. 1970.
41. Stuart Hall, ‘A World at One with Itself’, New Society, 403 (18 June 1970), pp. 1056–8.
42. K. Kumar, ‘Holding the Middle Ground: The BBC, the Public and the Professional Broadcaster’, in J. Curran, M. Gurevitch, and J. Woollacott (eds.), Mass Communication and Society (Arnold, 1977), pp. 231–48.
43. W. Barlow, ‘Community Radio in the US: The Struggle for a Democratic Medium’, Media, Culture and Society, 10, 1, 1988, 81–105.
44. N. Morris, ‘US Voices on UK Radio’, European Journal of Communication, 14, 1, 1999, 37–59.
45. J. Abramsky, ‘Sound Matters: Soundtrack for the UK—How Did We Get Here?’, Lecture, 30 Jan. 2002, Green College, Oxford University.
46. J. Abramsky, ‘Bi-Media: A Strategy for Radio?’, Lecture, 6 Feb. 2002, Green College, Oxford University.
Volume III: Audiences, Identities, and Communities; AND Technological Developments
Part 9: Audiences, Identities, and Communities
47. Kate Lacey, ‘Towards a Periodization of Listening: Radio and Modern Life’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 3, 2, 2000, 279–88.
48. S. Moores, ‘"The Box on the Dresser": Memories of Early Radio and Everyday Life’, Media, Culture and Society, 10, 1, 1988, 23–40.
49. R. Butsch, ‘Crystal Sets and Scarf Pin Radios: Gender, Technology and the Construction of American Radio Listening in the 1920s’, Media, Culture and Society, 20, 4, 1998, 557–72.
50. Robert Silvey, ‘The Intelligibility of Broadcast Talks’, in P. Davison, R. Meyersohn, and E. Shils (eds.), Literary Taste, Culture and Mass Communication (Chadwyck-Healey, 1978), Vol. 9 (‘Uses of Literacy; Media’), pp. 281–6.
51. S. Barnard, ‘Mother’s Little Helper: Programmes, Personalities and the Working Day’, On the Radio: Music Radio in Britain (Open University, 1989), pp. 135–50.
52. Alan Beck, ‘You’ve Got to Hide Your Love Away: Gay Radio Past and Present’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 127–43.
53. K. Ross, ‘All Ears: Radio, Reception and Discourses of Disability’, Media, Culture and Society, 23, 4, 2001, 419–37.
54. Jean Claude Domenget, ‘Day by Day, As Time Goes By: the Radio-Listening Habits of the Retired’, Radio Journal, 1, 1, 2003, 47-61.
55. Valerie Alia, ‘Indigenous Radio in Canada’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 77–94.
56. Helen Molnar, ‘National Public Service Radio in the South Pacific: A Community Loudspeaker’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 109–26.
57. Kevin Howley, ‘Radiocracy Rulz! Microradio as Electronic Activism’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 3, 2, 2000, 256–67.
58. Jo Tacchi, ‘Gender, Fantasy and Radio Consumption: An Ethnographic Case Study’, in C. Mitchell (ed.) Women and Radio: Airing Differences (Routledge, 2000), pp. 152–66.
59. Guy Starkey, ‘Radio Audience Research: Challenging the "Gold Standard"’, Cultural Trends, 45, 2003, 45–68.
60. S. Niblock and D. Machin, ‘News Values for Consumer Groups: The Case of Independent Radio News, London, UK’, Journalism, 8, 2, 2007, 184–204.
Part 10: Technological Developments
61. Jo Tacchi, ‘The Need for Radio Theory in the Digital Age’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 3, 2, pp. 289–98.
62. M. Spinelli, ‘Rhetorical Figures and the Digital Editing of Radio Speech’, Convergence, 12, 2, 2006, 199–212.
63. Richard Rudin, ‘The Development of DAB Digital Radio in the UK: the Battle for Control of a New Technology in an Old Medium’, Convergence, 12, 2, 2006, 163–78.
64. David A. Black, ‘Internet Radio: A Case Study in Medium Specificity’, Media, Culture and Society, 23, 3, 2001, 397–408.
65. M. Ala-Fossi, ‘Digital Reflections of Finnish Speech Journalism: YLE Radio Peili’, in A. Crisell (ed.), More than a Music Box: Radio Cultures and Communities in a Multi-Media World (Berghahn, 2004), pp. 57–74.
66. David Hendy, ‘A Political Economy of Radio in the Digital Age’, Journal of Radio Studies, 7, 1, 2000, 213–34.
67. Hans-Ullrich Muhlenfeld, ‘Mass Communication as Participation: Web-Radio in Germany: Legal Hazards and its Contribution to an Alternative Way of Mass Communication’, European Journal of Communication, 17, 1, 2002, pp. 103–13.
68. Tim Wall, ‘The Political Economy of Internet Music Radio’, Radio Journal, 2, 1, 2004, 27–44.
69. Richard Berry, ‘Will the iPod Kill the Radio Star? Profiling Podcasting as Radio’, Convergence, 12, 2, 2006, 143–62.
70. N. Neumark, ‘Different Spaces, Different Times: Exploring Possibilities for Cross-Platform "Radio"’, Convergence, 12, 2, 2006, 213–24.