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Biodiversity and Conservation

Edited by Richard Ladle

Routledge – 2009 – 2,980 pages

Series: Critical Concepts in the Environment

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    978-0-415-45654-8
    November 16th 2008

Description

Although ‘biodiversity’ is a relatively new coinage, scientists have been studying the subject it describes long before the word’s first appearance in the language in the mid-1980s. In 1973, for instance, the UK Systematics Association held a symposium on ‘The Changing Flora and Fauna of Britain’ which concluded that not enough attention was being paid to the conservation of rarities, a conclusion also reached, said the symposium, at a meeting of the Linnaean Society some forty years earlier. By 1980, the Global 2000 Report to the President published by the US Council on Environmental Quality starkly warned of a diminution of up to one-fifth of all species by the turn of the century, and there is now a growing consensus that the world faces a ‘biodiversity crisis’—a potentially catastrophic global loss of genetic, ecosystem, and, most obviously, species diversity. Indeed, especially since the UN Convention on Biological Diversity was promulgated in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, conserving biodiversity has become the principal focus of the global conservation movement. Indeed, the study of the origins, maintenance, and protection of diversity has become perhaps the most vibrant offshoot of ecology and conservation studies. It is increasingly taught and studied in universities—and other research institutions—around the world.

Addressing the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of this rapidly growing subject, and its ever more complex and multidisciplinary corpus of scholarly literature, Biodiversity and Conservation is a new title in the Routledge series, Critical Concepts in the Environment. Edited by Richard Ladle of Oxford University’s Centre for the Environment, this new Major Work brings together in five volumes the foundational and the very best cutting-edge scholarship to provide a synoptic view of all the key issues and current debates.

The first volume in the collection (‘History, Background, and Concepts’) brings together the most important scholarship covering all the major themes that have come to define the scope of the subject. For example, what is biodiversity and how is it measured? Also, what are the geographic and temporal patterns of biodiversity? And what are its values? Volumes II and III, meanwhile, collect the vital research on topics such as: population growth and development; habitat loss and fragmentation; pollution; invasive species; terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biomes; and climate change.

The scope of the materials in Volume IV (‘Responses to Biodiversity Loss’) includes international legal frameworks for conservation biodiversity; protected areas and networks; conservation planning; restoration and rewilding; reintroductions and translocations; and ex-situ conservation (via, for instance, zoos, seed and gene banks); conservation education; and community conservation.

The scholarship assembled in the final volume (‘Future Directions in Biodiversity Conservation’) collects the best and most influential work on themes such as paleo-ecology (or how to use the past to understand the future); the emergence of conservation biogeography; conservation outside protected areas (or ‘reconciliation ecology’); and the effects of the revolution in IT. Also gathered here is the finest research on the idea of a converging agenda around sustainable development, poverty, and biodiversity, as well as the crucial work on economics and market-led conservation.

Biodiversity and Conservation is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. The collection’s fresh and explicitly interdisciplinary approach provides a unique insight into the development of the subject from a predominantly science-based topic to a vibrant interdisciplinary concern, with an increasing appreciation of the social obligations of conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation is an essential reference collection and is destined to be valued by scholars and students—as well as conservation policy-makers and practitioners—as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.

Contents

Volume I: History, Background, and Concepts

1. What is Biodiversity and How is it Measured?

1. K. H. Redford and B. D. Richter (1999) ‘Conservation of Biodiversity in a World of Use, Conservation Biology, 13(6), 1246–56.

2. R. F. Noss (1990) ‘Indicators for Monitoring Biodiversity: A Hierarchical Approach’, Conservation Biology, 4(4), 355–64.

3. C. J. Humphries, P. H. Williams, and R. I. Vanewright (1995) ‘Measuring Biodiversity Value for Conservation’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26, 93–111.

4. N. J. Gotelli and R. K. Colwell (2001) ‘Quantifying Biodiversity: Procedures and Pitfalls in the Measurement and Comparison of Species Richness’, Ecology Letters, 4(4), 379–91.

5. R. Dirzo and P. H. Raven (2003) ‘Global State of Biodiversity and Loss’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28, 137–67.

2. Origins of Biodiversity

6. G. L. Bush (1975) ‘Modes of Animal Speciation’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 6, 339–64.

7. P. B. Rainey and M. Travisano (1998) ‘Adaptive Radiation in a Heterogeneous Environment’, Nature, 394(6688), 69–72.

8. D. Schluter (1996) ‘Ecological Causes of Adaptive Radiation’, American Naturalist, 148, S40–S64.

9. P. J. Mayhew (2007) ‘Why are There so Many Insect Species? Perspectives from Fossils and Phylogenies’, Biological Reviews, 82(3), 425–54

3. Geographic Patterns of biodiversity

10. K. J. Gaston (2000) ‘Global Patterns in Biodiversity’, Nature, 405(6783), 220–7.

11. R. E. Ricklefs (2004) ‘A Comprehensive Framework for Global Patterns in Biodiversity’, Ecology Letters, 7(1), 1–15.

12. M. R. Willig, D. M. Kaufman, and R. D. Stevens (2003) ‘Latitudinal Gradients of Biodiversity: Pattern, Process, Scale, and Synthesis’, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 34, 273–309.

4. Temporal Patterns of Biodiversity

13. M. J. Benton (1995) ‘Diversification and Extinction in the History of Life’, Science, 268(5207), 52–8.

14. D. W. Steadman (1995) ‘Prehistoric Extinctions of Pacific Island Birds: Biodiversity Meets Zooarchaeology’, Science, 267(5201), 52–8.

15. D. H. Erwin (2001) ‘Lessons from the Past: Biotic Recoveries from Mass Extinctions’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(10), 5399–403.

16. P. L. Koch and A. D. Barnosky (2006) ‘Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate’, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 37, 215–50.

5. Conservation Genetics

17. W. Amos and A. Balmford (2001) ‘When does Conservation Genetics Matter?’, Heredity, 87, 257–65.

18. P. W. Hedrick and S. T. Kalinowski (2000) ‘Inbreeding Depression in Conservation Biology’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 139–62.

19. D. A. Tallmon, G. Luikart, and R. S. Waples (2004) ‘The Alluring Simplicity and Complex Reality of Genetic Rescue’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(9), 489–96.

6. Key Concepts

20. G. Caughley (1994) ‘Directions in Conservation Biology’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 63(2), 215–44.

21. R. Lande (1993) ‘Risks of Population Extinction from Demographic and Environmental Stochasticity and Random Catastrophes’, American Naturalist, 142(6), 911–27.

22. R. J. Whittaker, K. J. Willis, and R. Field (2001) ‘Scale and Species Richness: Towards a General, Hierarchical Theory of Species Diversity’, Journal of Biogeography, 28(4), 453–70.

23. L. S. Mills, M. E. Soule, and D. F. Doak (1993) ‘The Keystone Species Concept in Ecology and Conservation’, Bioscience, 43(4), 219–24.

7. The Value of Biodiversity

24. P. R. Ehrlich and A. H. Ehrlich (1992) ‘The Value of Biodiversity’, Ambio, 21(3), 219–26.

25. R. Costanza et al. (1997) ‘The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital’, Nature, 387, 253–60.

26. P. Jepson and S. Canney (2003) ‘Values-led Conservation’, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 12(4), 271–4.

Volume II: Causes and consequences of biodiversity loss

8. Ultimate Causes

27. G. W. Luck (2007) ‘A Review of the Relationships Between Human Population Density and Biodiversity’, Biological Reviews, 82, 607–45.

28. J. T. Kerr and D. J. Currie (1995) ‘Effects of Human Activity on Global Extinction Risk’, Conservation Biology, 9(6), 1528–38.

29. A. J. Hansen et al. (2005) ‘Effects of Exurban Development on Biodiversity: Patterns, Mechanisms, and Research Needs’, Ecological Applications, 15(6), 1893–905.

30. M. L. McKinney (2002) ‘Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation’, Bioscience, 52(10), 883–90.

9. Habitat Loss

31. L. Fahrig (2001) ‘How Much Habitat is Enough?’, Biological Conservation, 100(1), 65–74.

32. B. W. Brook, N. S. Sodhi, and P. K. L. Ng (2003) ‘Catastrophic Extinctions Follow Deforestation in Singapore’, Nature 424(6947), 420–3.

33. D. J. Bender, T. J. Contreras, and L. Fahrig (1998) ‘Habitat Loss and Population Decline: A Meta-Analysis of the Patch Size Effect’, Ecology, 79(2), 517–33.

10. Habitat Fragmentation

34. L. Fahrig (2003) ‘Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Biodiversity’, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution & Systematics, 34, 487–515.

35. M. A. Villard, M. K. Trzcinski, and G. Merriam (1999) ‘Fragmentation Effects on Forest Birds: Relative Influence of Woodland Cover and Configuration on Landscape Occupancy’, Conservation Biology, 13, 774–83.

36. R. M. Ewers and R. K. Didham (2006) ‘Confounding Factors in the Detection of Species Responses to Habitat Fragmentation’, Biological Reviews, 81(1), 117–42.

37. L. Ries et al. (2004) ‘Ecological Responses to Habitat Edges: Mechanisms, Models, and Variability Explained’, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35, 491–522.

11. Invasive Species

38. M. L. McKinney and J. L. Lockwood (1999) ‘Biotic Homogenization: A Few Winners Replacing Many Losers in the Next Mass Extinction’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14(11), 450–3.

39. F. Courchamp, J. L. Chaphuis, and M. Pascal (2003) ‘Mammal Invaders on Islands: Impact, Control and Control Impact’, Biological Reviews, 78, 347–83.

40. J. D. Fridley et al. (2007) ‘The Invasion Paradox: Reconciling Pattern and Process in Species Invasions’, Ecology, 88(1), 3–17.

41. J. Gurevitch and D. K. Padilla (2004) ‘Are Invasive Species a Major Cause of Extinctions?’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(9), 470–4.

Volume III

12. Pollution

42. J. A. McNeely (1992) ‘The Sinking Ark: Pollution and the Worldwide Loss of Biodiversity’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 1(1), 2–18.

43. R. A. Relyea (2004) ‘The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the Biodiversity and Productivity of Aquatic Communities’, Ecological Applications, 15(2), 618–27.

44. P. Matson, K. A. Lohse, and S. J. Hall (2002) ‘The Globalization of Nitrogen Deposition: Consequences for Terrestrial Ecosystems’, Ambio, 31(2), 113–19.

45. A. R. Blaustein et al. (2003) ‘Ultraviolet Radiation, Toxic Chemicals and Amphibian Population Declines’, Diversity and Distributions, 9(2), 123–40.

13. Climate Change

46. L. Hughes (2000) ‘Biological Consequences of Global Warming: Is the Signal Already Apparent?’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15(2), 56–61.

47. C. D. Thomas et al. (2004) ‘Extinction Risk from Climate Change’, Nature, 427, 145–8.

48. D. B. Botkin et al. (2007) ‘Forecasting the Effects of Global Warming on Biodiversity’, Bioscience, 57(3), 227–36.

49. O. E. Sala et al. (2000) ‘Biodiversity: Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100’, Science, 287(5459), 1770–4.

14. Unsustainable Exploitation

50. S. J. Wright (2003) ‘The Myriad Consequences of Hunting for Vertebrates and Plants in Tropical Forests’, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 6(1–2), 73–86.

51. E. J. Millner-Gulland and E. L. Bennet (2003) ‘Wild Meat: The Bigger Picture’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(7), 351–7.

52. C. A. Peres (2001) ‘Synergistic Effects of Subsistence Hunting and Habitat Fragmentation on Amazonian Forest Vertebrates’, Conservation Biology, 15(6), 1490–1505.

53. D. Pauly et al. (1998) ‘Fishing Down Marine Food Webs’, Science, 279(5352), 860–3.

15. Threatened Ecosystems

54. P. M. Fearnside (2005) ‘Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences’, Conservation Biology, 19(3), 680–8.

55. D. Dudgeon et al. (2006) ‘Freshwater Biodiversity: Importance, Threats, Status and Conservation Challenges’, Biological Reviews, 81(2), 163–82.

56. B. Malmqvist and S. Rundle (2002) ‘Threats to the Running Water Ecosystems of the World’, Environmental Conservation, 29, 134–53.

57. J. S. Gray (1997) ‘Marine Biodiversity: Patterns, Threats and Conversation Needs’, Biodiversity & Conservation, 6, 153–75.

58. B. S. Halpern et al. (2007) ‘Evaluating and Ranking the Vulnerability of Global Marine Ecosystems to Anthropogenic Threats’, Conservation Biology, 21(5), 1301–15.

59. O. Hoegh-Guldberg (1999) ‘Climate Change, Coral Bleaching and the Future of the World’s Coral Reefs’, Marine and Freshwater Research, 50(8), 839–66.

60. E. J. Farnsworth and A. M. Ellison (1997) ‘The Global Conservation Status of Mangroves’, Ambio, 26(6), 328–34.

61. R. J. Orth et al. (2006) ‘A Global Crisis for Seagrass Ecosystems’, Bioscience, 56(12), 987–96.

Volume IV: Responses to biodiversity loss

16. International Legal Framework

62. The UN Convention on Biodiversity.

63. T. Swanson (1999) ‘Why is There a Biodiversity Convention? The International Interest in Centralized Development Planning’, International Affairs, 75(2), 307–31.

64. A. Balmford et al. (2005) ‘The 2010 Challenge: Data Availability, Information Needs and Extraterrestrial Insights’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 360(1454), 221–8.

17. Protected Areas and Protected Area Networks

65. M. E. Soule and D. Simberloff (1986) ‘What do Genetics and Ecology Tell Us About the Design of Nature-Reserves?’, Biological Conservation, 35(1), 19–40.

66. H. Locke and P. Dearden (2005) ‘Rethinking Protected Area Categories and the New Paradigm’, Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 1–10.

67. T. V. Burkey (1989) ‘Extinction in Nature Reserves: The Effect of Fragmentation and the Importance of Migration Between Reserve Fragments’, Oikos, 55(1), 75–81.

68. M. Cabeza and A. Moilanen (2001) ‘Design of Reserve Networks and the Persistence of Biodiversity’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16(5), 242–8.

69. A. S. L. Rodrigues et al. (2004) ‘Global Gap Analysis: Priority Regions for Expanding the Global Protected-Area Network’, Bioscience, 54(12), 1092–100.

18. Conservation Planning

70. R. L. Pressey et al. (1993) ‘Beyond Opportunism: Key Principles for Systematic Reserve Selection’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8(4), 124–8.

71. C. R. Margules and R. L. Pressey (2000) ‘Systematic Conservation Planning’, Nature, 405(6783), 243–53.

72. N. Myers et al. (2000) ‘Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities’, Nature, 403, 853–8.

73. D. M. Olsen and E. Dinerstein (1998) ‘The Global 200: A Representation Approach to Conserving the Earth’s Most Biologically Valuable Ecoregions’, Conservation Biology, 12(3), 502–15.

74. K. A. Wilson et al. (2007) ‘Conserving Biodiversity Efficiently: What to Do, Where, and When’, PLoS Biology, 5(9), 1850–61.

75. L. Hannah, G. F. Midgley, and D. Millar (2002) ‘Climate Change-Integrated Conservation Strategies’, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(6), 485–95.

19. Identifying Threats

76. G. M. Mace and R. Lande (1994) ‘Assessing Extinction Threats: Toward a Re-evaluation of IUCN Threatened Species Categories’, Conservation Biology, 5(2), 148–57.

77. P. C. de Grammont and A. D. Cuaron (2006) ‘An Evaluation of Threatened Species Categorization Systems Used on the American Continent’, Conservation Biology, 20(1), 14–27.

78. H. R. Akcakaya et al. (2000) ‘Making Consistent IUCN Classifications Under Uncertainty’, Conservation Biology, 14(4), 1001–14.

79. M. A. Burgman, R. C. Grimson, and S. Ferson (1995) ‘Inferring Threat from Scientific Collections’, Conservation Biology, 9(4), 923–8.

20. Restoration and Re-wilding

80. R. J. Hobbs and J. A. Harris (2001) ‘Restoration Ecology: Repairing the Earth’s Ecosystems in the New Millennium’, Restoration Ecology, 9(2), 239–46.

81. T. P. Young (2000) ‘Restoration Ecology and Conservation Biology’, Biological Conservation, 92(1), 73–83.

82. K. N. Suding, K. L. Gross, and G. R. Houseman (2004) ‘Alternative States and Positive Feedbacks in Restoration Ecology’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(1), 46–53.

83. J. G. Ehrenfield (2000) ‘Defining the Limits of Restoration: The Need for Realistic Goals’, Restoration Ecology, 8(1), 2–9.

84. C. J. Donlan et al. (2006) ‘Pleistocene Rewilding: An Optimistic Agenda for Twenty-First Century Conservation’, American Naturalist, 168(5), 660–81.

21. Translocations and Introductions

85. F. Sarrazin and R. Barbault (1996) ‘Reintroduction: Challenges and Lessons for Basic Ecology’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11(11), 474–8.

86. P. J. Seddon, D. P. Armstrong, and R. F. Maloney (2007) ‘Developing the Science of Reintroduction Biology’, Conservation Biology, 21(2), 303–12.

87. B. Griffith et al. (1989) ‘Translocation as a Species Conservation Tool’, Science, 245(4917), 477–80.

22. Ex-Situ Conservation

88. A. Balmford, G. M. Mace, and N. Leader Williams (1996) ‘Designing the Ark: Setting Priorities for Captive Breeding’, Conservation Biology, 10(3), 719–27.

89. B. Tenhumberg et al. (2004) ‘Linking Wild and Captive Populations to Maximize Species Persistence: Optimal Translocation Strategies’, Conservation Biology, 18(5), 1304–14.

90. F. Mathews et al. (2005) ‘Keeping Fit on the Ark: Assessing the Suitability of Captive-Bred Animals for Release’, Biological Conservation, 121(4), 569–77.

23. Conservation Practice

91. C. O’Connor, M. Marvier, and P. Kareiva (2003) ‘Biological vs. Social, Economic and Political Priority-Setting in Conservation’, Ecology Letters, 6(8), 706–11.

92. R. J. Smith et al. (2003) ‘Governance and the Loss of Biodiversity’, Nature, 426(6962), 67–70.

93. C. B. Barrett et al. (2001) ‘Conserving Tropical Biodiversity Amid Weak Institutions’, Bioscience, 51(6), 497–502.

94. B. S. Halpern et al. (2006) ‘Gaps and Mismatches Between Global Conservation Priorities and Spending’, Conservation Biology, 20(1), 56–64.

24. Community Conservation

95. F. Berkes (2007) ‘Community-Based Conservation in a Globalized World’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(39), 15188–93.

96. J. D. Hackel (1999) ‘Community Conservation and the Future of Africa’s Wildlife’, Conservation Biology, 13(4), 726–34.

97. K. M. A. Chan et al. (2007) ‘When Agendas Collide: Human Welfare and Biological Conservation’, Conservation Biology, 21(1), 59–68.

Volume V: Future directions in biodiversity conservation

25. Lessons from the Past

98. K. J. Willis et al. (2007) ‘How Can a Knowledge of the Past Help to Conserve the Future? Biodiversity Conservation and the Relevance of Long-Term Ecological Studies’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 362(1478), 175–86.

99. R. L. Chazdon (2003) ‘Tropical Forest Recovery: Legacies of Human Impact and Natural Disturbances’, Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 6(1–2), 51–71.

100. T. W. Swetnam, C. D. Allen, and J. L. Betancourt (1999) ‘Applied Historical Ecology: Using the Past to Manage for the Future’, Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1189–206.

26. Predicting the Future of Biodiversity

101. J. K. McKee et al. (2004) ‘Forecasting Global Biodiversity Threats Associated with Human Population Growth’, Biological Conservation, 115(1), 161–4.

102. I. Ibanez et al. (2006) ‘Predicting Biodiversity Change: Outside the Climate Envelope, Beyond the Species-Area Curve’, Ecology, 87(8), 1896–906.

103. J. S. Clark et al. (2003) ‘Estimating Population Spread: What Can we Forecast and How Well?’, Ecology, 84(8), 1979–88.

104. D. Ludwig (1999) ‘Is it Meaningful to Estimate a Probability of Extinction?’, Ecology, 80(1), 298–310.

105. W. Thuiller et al. (2008) ‘Predicting Global Change Impacts on Plant Species’ Distributions: Future Challenges’, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9, 137–52.

27. Conservation Outside of Protected Areas

106. M. L. Rosenzweig (2003) ‘Reconciliation Ecology and the Future of Species Diversity’, Oryx, 37(2), 194–205.

107. J. R. Miller and R. J. Hobbs (2002) ‘Conservation Where People Live and Work’, Conservation Biology, 16(2), 330–7.

108. D. Kleijn and W. J. Sutherland (2003) ‘How Effective are European Agri-Environment Schemes in Conserving and Promoting Biodiversity?’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 40(6), 947–69.

28. The it revolution and Biodiversity Science

109. E. O. Wilson (2003) ‘The Encyclopedia of Life’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18(2), 77–80.

110. K. J. Gaston and M. A. O’Neill (2004) ‘Automated Species Identification: Why Not?’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 359(1444), 655–67.

111. J. L. Schnase et al. (2003) ‘Information Technology Challenges of Biodiversity and Ecosystems Informatics’, Information Systems, 28(4), 339–45.

29. Biodiversity, Poverty, and Sustainable Development

112. P. West, J. Igoe, and D. Brockington (2006) ‘Parks and Peoples: The Social Impact of Protected Areas’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 251–77.

113. J. M. Hutton and N. Leader-Williams (2003) ‘Sustainable Use and Incentive-Driven Conservation: Realigning Human and Conservation Interests’, Oryx, 37(2), 215–26.

114. R. E. Green et al. (2005) ‘A Framework for Improved Monitoring of Biodiversity: Responses to the World Summit on Sustainable Development’, Conservation Biology, 19(1), 56–65.

115. K. Brown (2002) ‘Innovations for Conservation and Development’, Geographical Journal, 168, 6–17.

30. Paying for Biodiversity

116. J. B. Loomis and D. S. White (1996) ‘Economic Benefits of Rare and Endangered Species: Summary and Meta-Analysis’, Ecological Economics, 18(3), 197–206.

117. R. D. Simpson, R. A. Sedjo, and J. W. Reid (1996) ‘Valuing Biodiversity for Use in Pharmaceutical Research’, Journal of Political Economy, 104(1), 163–85.

118. A. Kiss (2004) ‘Is Community-Based Ecotourism a Good Use of Biodiversity Conservation Funds?’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19(5), 232–7.

119. B. Martin-Lopez, C. Montes, and J. Benayas (2007) ‘The Non-Economic Motives Behind the Willingness to Pay for Biodiversity Conservation’, Biological Conservation, 139(1–2), 67–82.

31. The Future of Biodiversity Research

120. R. J. Whittaker et al. (2005) ‘Conservation Biogeography: Assessment and Prospect’, Diversity & Distributions, 11, 3–23.

121. S. Nee and R. M. May (1997) ‘Extinction and the Loss of Evolutionary History’, Science, 278(5338), 692–4.

122. J. G. Robinson (2006) ‘Conservation Biology and Real-World Conservation’, Conservation Biology, 20(3), 658–69.

Name: Biodiversity and Conservation (Hardback)Routledge 
Description: Edited by Richard Ladle. Although ‘biodiversity’ is a relatively new coinage, scientists have been studying the subject it describes long before the word’s first appearance in the language in the mid-1980s. In 1973, for instance, the UK Systematics...
Categories: Conservation - Environment Studies, General Reference