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Geomorphology

By Mateo Gutierrez

CRC Press – 2013 – 1,014 pages

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    978-0-415-59533-9
    December 7th 2012

Description

This book provides a detailed coverage of the landforms of Planet Earth and the processes that shaped them. The study of these morphologies, some of which formed during past geological periods under environmental conditions very different from those of today, makes it possible to reconstruct the evolution of relief and to infer environmental changes that have involved geological media, the climate, or human activity.

A major advance of Geomorphology in recent decades is the development of techniques that make it possible to quantify morphogenetic processes and rates at which forms change under different environmental conditions. The development of Geochronology, or absolute dating methods, is helping us correct the limitations of relative dating that have prevailed in Geomorphology for many years. The ability to assign numerical ages to both landforms and deposits opens up multiple possibilities for reconstructing the evolution of relief, making correlations, calculating rates, and estimating recurrence periods.

A theme of major concern facing people today is the possible warming of the planet due to the release of greenhouse gases into the environment. Investigations conducted by the scientific community show that this temperature increase is at least partially anthropogenic. Given this more-than-probable cause and effect relationship, the most sensible and prudent path is to design and apply mitigation measures to alleviate this heating that can negatively affect both the natural environment and human society. The information that Geomorphology can provide on the recent past (Historical Geomorphology) may be very useful in making predictions on the activity of these potentially dangerous processes in the future and on the possible effects of environmental changes.

The aim of this book is to provide a general vision of the multiple aspects of Geomorphology and to provide a methodological foundation to approach the study of various branches of geomorphology. To this end, the book contains a basic bibliography that can be used for future research. In addition, applied aspects of Geomorphology are covered at the end of each chapter to provide knowledge of the activities of geomorphologists in the professional world.

Contents

PREFACE

1 GEOMORPHOLOGY

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 HISTORY OF GEOMORPHOLOGY

Geomorphology prior to the 20th century

Models of landscape evolution

Geomorphology in the first half of the 20th century

Process geomorphology

Reconstruction of geomorphic history: Geochronology

1.3 GEOMORPHIC SYSTEMS

1.4 GEOMORPHIC CONCEPTS

1.5 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCALES

1.6 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY

1.7 STRUCTURE OF GEOMORPHOLOGY

2 STRUCTURAL GEOMORPHOLOGY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

2.3 COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH

2.4 LITHOSPHERE AND ASTHENOSPHERE

2.5 ISOSTASY

2.6 PRECURSORS OF GLOBAL TECTONICS

2.7 PLATE TECTONICS

2.8 STRUCTURAL LANDFORMS

2.9 PSEUDO-STRUCTURAL LANDFORMS

3 TECTONIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 GEOMORPHIC MARKERS

Planar geomorphic markers

Linear geomorphic markers

3.3 DATING METHODS

Relative dating methods

Absolute dating methods

3.4 TECTONIC GEOMORPHOLOGY TECHNIQUES

Cartography of paleoseismic regions

Cartography of paleoseismic stratigraphy

Geophysical techniques in paleoseismology

Archeological techniques

Geodetic techniques

Other techniques

3.5 DEFORMATION OF LANDFORMS

Geomorphic indices of tectonic activity

The fluvial system and tectonic geomorphology

Uplift, subsidence, and earthquakes in fluvial systems

Deformation in colluvial and fluvial deposits

Deformation in littoral and lacustrine environments

3.6 SEISMIC RISK

3.7 PREVENTION, MITIGATION, AND WARNING

3.8 HUMAN-INDUCED EARTHQUAKES

4 VOLCANIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 PLATE TECTONICS AND VOLCANISM

4.3 MAGMA AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

4.4 TYPES OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

4.5 PRINCIPAL TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Icelandic eruptions

Hawaiian eruptions

Strombolian eruptions

Vulcanian eruptions

Vesuvian eruptions

Peleean eruptions

Plinian eruptions

4.6 NUÉES ARDENTES AND PYROCLASTIC FLOWS

4.7 HYDROVOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Sub-aqueous eruptions

Phreatic eruptions

Sub-glacial eruptions

4.8 ROCK AVALANCHES AND LAHARS

4.9 GASEOUS OR HYDROTHERMAL ERUPTIONS

4.10 LAVA FLOWS

Basalt flows

Acid lava flows

4.11 PYROCLASTICS

Pyroclastic fall deposits

Pyroclastic surges

Pyroclastic flows

4.12 VOLCANO MORPHOLOGY

Volcanoes that erupt basic lava

Volcanoes that erupt acidic lava

4.13 PYROCLASTIC CONES

4.14 STRATOVOLCANOES

4.15 CALDERAS

4.16 VOLCANIC LANDFORMS RESULTING

FROM EROSION

4.17 VOLCANIC RISK AND PREDICTION

5 WEATHERING AND RESULTING LANDFORMS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 TYPES OF WEATHERING PROCESSES

Physical weathering

Sheeting

Gelifraction

Insolation weathering

Weathering by wetting and drying

Salt weathering

Biological weathering

Chemical weathering

Weathering of silicates

Degrees of weathering and weathering products

Weathering profile

Weathering depth

Weathering zones

Weathering rates

5.3 RESULTANT WEATHERING FORMS

5.4 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF WEATHERING

Weathering processes and products

Supergene mineral ores and placers

Regolith characteristics: Implications for engineering geology

Weathering of monuments

Weathering of sandstones in various climatic environments

6 KARST GEOMORPHOLOGY

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 CARBONATE DISSOLUTION

6.3 SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIMESTONES: KARREN

6.4 DOLINES/SINKHOLES

Solution sinkholes

Collapse sinkholes

6.5 POLJES

6.6 KARST VALLEYS AND SPRINGS

6.7 ENDOKARST

Principal factors in cave formation

Limestone type and structure

Type and amount of water flow

Physiographic and climatic factors

Some cave types

6.8 CAVE DEPOSITS

6.9 TYPES OF KARST AND THE ROLE OF CLIMATE

6.10 EVAPORITE KARST

Evaporite dissolution

Karst landforms in evaporites

6.11 KARST RISKS, APPLICATIONS AND USES

7 SLOPES AND MASS MOVEMENT

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 SLOPE SHAPES

7.3 TYPES OF MASS MOVEMENTS

Falls and rockfalls

Topples

Landslides

Rotational landslides (slumps)

Translational landslides

Lateral spreading

Lateral spreading in rocks

Lateral spreading in soils and detritus

Sackung

Flows

Complex mass movements

Rock avalanches

Flow slides

Large gravitational landslides

7.4 FACTORS THAT CONTROL MASS MOVEMENTS

7.5 LANDSLIDE RISK: CASE HISTORIES

7.6 LANDSLIDE PREDICTION AND MITIGATION

8 FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY I

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY

8.3 THE FLUVIAL SYSTEM—CONCEPT OF A HYDROSYSTEM

8.4 MORPHOMETRY OF A RIVER BASIN

8.5 HYDRAULICS OF FLUID FLOW

8.6 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

8.7 FLUVIAL EROSION

8.8 LONGITUDINAL PROFILE, BASE LEVEL, AND STREAM CAPTURE

8.9 FLUVIAL CHANNEL SYSTEMS

8.10 STABILITY OF FLUVIAL CHANNELS

8.11 METAMORPHOSIS OF RIVERS

9 FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY II

9.1 FLUVIAL SEDIMENTATION

9.2 FLOODPLAINS

9.3 ALLUVIAL FANS

Definition, prior work, and terminology

Alluvial fan morphology

Factors that control alluvial fan development

Sedimentary processes

Sediment supply processes

Reworking processes

Dynamics and evolution of alluvial fan development

9.4 FLUVIAL TERRACES

9.5 LARGE RIVERS

9.6 FLOODING

Introduction

Types of floods

Causes and factors that intensify flooding

Magnitude and frequency of flooding

Mapping of flood risk areas

Paleohydrology

9.7 FLOOD RISK

Flood risk in Spain

Two catastrophic floods: Barranco de Arás (Huesca, 1996) and the Riada del Júcar (Valencia, 1982)

9.8 FLOOD PREVENTION AND MITIGATION

10 EOLIAN GEOMORPHOLOGY

10.1 EOLIAN PROCESSES

10.2 ORIGIN AND CHARACTERISTICS OF EOLIAN PARTICLES

10.3 EOLIAN PARTICLE MOVEMENT

10.4 TYPES OF EOLIAN TRANSPORT

10.5 RIPPLES

10.6 EOLIAN EROSION AND RESULTING LANDFORMS

Ventifacts

Yardangs

Deflation basins

10.7 EOLIAN ACCUMULATIONS

10.8 FACTORS CONTROLLING ERG DEVELOPMENT

10.9 DUNE PROCESSES

10.10 DUNE CLASSIFICATION

Transverse dunes

Linear dunes

Pyramidal and network dunes

Sand sheets and zibars

Dunes anchored by vegetation

Topographically anchored dunes

10.11 DESERT DUST

General characteristics

Source area and generating processes

Entrainment, transport and sedimentation

Geomorphic implications

Loess

10.12 WIND RISK: PROBLEMS AND CONTROL

11 COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF COASTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY

11.3 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCALES

11.4 SEA LEVEL VARIATIONS

Causes of sea level changes

Holocene eustatic changes and future predictions

11.5 WAVES, CURRENTS, AND TIDES

11.6 CLIFF COASTS AND ROCKY PLATFORMS

11.7 CORAL REEF COASTS

11.8 BEACHES, BARRIERS, AND SPITS

11.9 COASTAL DUNES

11.10 MUDFLATS, SALT MARSHES, AND MANGROVES

11.11 ESTUARIES AND DELTAS

11.12 COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS: USES, MANAGEMENT, AND RISKS

12 CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.2 THE BEGINNINGS OF CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

12.3 THE STRUCTURE OF CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

12.4 THE EVOLUTION OF CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

12.5 APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS

12.6 CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY: PROCESSES AND MORPHOCLIMATIC DIFFERENTIATION

12.7 THE CONCEPT OF ZONATION IN CLIMATIC GEOMORPHOLOGY

12.8 PRINCIPAL MORPHOCLIMATIC ZONES

13 GLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY I

13.1 GLACIERS

Introduction

Present and past extent of glaciers

Mass balance in glaciers: Accumulation and ablation

Transformation of snow into ice

Glacier classification

Thermal classification

Morphological classification

Glacier movement

Glacier structures

13.2 GLACIAL EROSION

Erosional processes

Types of processes

Landforms produced by glacial erosion

Striations, grooves, and glacial polish

Friction cracks and p-shapes

Roches moutonnées and other landforms

Cirques

Glacial valleys

Glacial landforms in low relief regions

Fjords

14 GLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY II

14.1 GLACIAL TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION

Glacial supply and environments

Mechanics of glacial deposition

Till characteristics

Landforms resulting from glacial deposition

14.2 FLUVIOGLACIAL EROSION

AND SEDIMENTATION

Meltwater

Landforms resulting from fluvioglacial erosion

Landforms resulting from fluvioglacial deposition

14.3 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY IN GLACIAL REGIONS

Introduction

Risks caused by ice mass activity

Icebergs

Ice avalanches

Glacier-dammed lakes

Volcanism and glaciers

Problems caused by glaciotectonics

Geological engineering considerations for non-glaciated areas

Placer deposits in glacial environments

15 PERIGLACIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY

15.1 THE PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENT

Introduction

Permafrost characteristics

Periglacial processes

Frost action

Chemical weathering

Mass movement

Nival processes

Fluvial activity

Wind action

15.2 PERIGLACIAL LANDFORMS

Patterned ground

Ice-cored mounds

Palsas

Pingos

Slope morphology and evolution

Gelifluction slopes

Cryoplanation terraces

and cryopediments

Talus slopes and debris cones

Block fields, block slopes and block streams

Rock glaciers

Grèzes litées

Nivation landforms

Slope evolution

Fluvial landforms

Thermokarst or cryokarst

15.3 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY IN PERIGLACIAL REGIONS

Introduction

Snow avalanches

Mass movement

Engineering problems in frozen soil regions

Buildings

Linear infrastructure

Oil and gas pipelines

Mining

Other activities

16 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF ARID ZONES I

16.1 INTRODUCTION

Causes of aridity

Climate features of deserts

Geomorphic classification of desert areas

16.2 DESERT SURFACES: PAVEMENTS, PATTERNED GROUND, VARNISHES, AND CRUSTS

General characteristics of desert pavements

Processes involved in the formation of desert pavements

Pavement development

Patterned ground

Desiccation cracks

Gilgai

16.3 DESERT VARNISH

Composition and age

Formation processes

Environmental implications and age of varnishes

16.4 DURICRUSTS

Caliches

Geochemistry and mineralogy

Morphology

Origin

Siliceous crusts

Gypsiferous crusts

16.5 WATER IN ARID ZONES

Precipitation, vegetation, and evapotranspiration

Desert fluvial networks

Runoff and sediment transport on slopes

Water erosion on slopes

Fluvial landforms and processes

Valley fills and incised channels

17 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF ARID ZONES II

17.1 SLOPES IN ARID ZONES

Slopes in crystalline rocks

Slopes in stratified rocks

Simple slopes

Compound slopes

Flatirons

Scarp retreat rates

Badlands

17.2 PIEDMONTS IN ARID REGIONS: PEDIMENTS

Glacis and pediments: Definition, terminology and distribution

Pediment morphology

Role of geology and climate on pediment formation

Dominant pediment processes

Hypothesis on the origin of pediments

Pediment evolution—pediplains

17.3 DESERT LAKES: PLAYAS AND SABKHAS

Origin of closed depressions in arid environments

General hydrology of arid zones

Sedimentation in desert lakes

Clay-rich closed depressions

Salt lakes

Littoral sabhkas

17.4 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY IN ARID ZONES

Introduction

Volume changes

Lacustrine systems

Human induced subsidence

Degradation of arid zones: Desertification

Earth dams and reservoirs

18 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF TROPICAL ZONES

18.1 INTRODUCTION

Climate characteristics, vegetation, and morphoclimatic domains

18.2 LATERITES

Weathering, composition, and structures

Factors that affect formation

The laterite profile

Laterite formation

Laterite ages and their paleoenvironmental significance

Bauxites

18.3 TROPICAL LANDFORMS

Erosion and sedimentation in fluvial systems

Quantification of soil loss

18.4 SLOPES AND STONE LINES

18.5 LANDFORMS SHAPED BY FLUVIAL EROSION

18.6 FLUVIAL SEDIMENTARY LANDFORMS

18.7 LARGE TROPICAL RIVERS

18.8 LANDFORMS THAT DEVELOP IN LATERITES

18.9 TROPICAL PLANATION: ETCHPLAINS

18.10 INSELBERGS

Boulder inselbergs (tors)

Domed inselbergs (bornhardts)

18.11 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY IN TROPICAL REGIONS

Catastrophic flooding

19 ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

19.1 INTRODUCTION

19.2 THE EARTH’S CLIMATE SYSTEM

19.3 CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

Consequences of climate change

Prediction of climate change

Evolution of the principal contributions to climate change and uncertainties

Mitigation

19.4 ANTHROPOGENIC CHANGE

Changes in populations and society through time

Human impact on the environment

19.5 TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

20 CLIMATE CHANGE IN GLACIAL AND PERIGLACIAL REGIONS

20.1 INTRODUCTION

20.2 PALEOCLIMATE DATA PROVIDED BY DRILL CORES OF ICE SHEETS AND DEEP SEA SEDIMENTS

20.3 FLUCTUATIONS OF QUATERNARY ICE SHEETS AND RESULTING LANDFORMS

20.4 RETREAT OF CIRQUE AND VALLEY GLACIERS

20.5 GLACIO-ISOSTASY AND GLACIO-EUSTASY

20.6 RECONSTRUCTION OF PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS

20.7 RELICT PERIGLACIAL LANDFORMS

20.8 FLUVIAL SYSTEMS IN PERIGLACIAL AREAS

20.9 EOLIAN ACTIVITY IN PERIGLACIAL REGIONS

20.10 FLUCTUATIONS IN PERIGLACIAL AREAS DURING THE LATE QUATERNARY

20.11 CONSIDERATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE IN PERIGLACIAL ZONES

21 CLIMATE CHANGE IN ARID AND TROPICAL HUMID REGIONS

21.1 ARID REGIONS

Fluvial systems

Slopes and their evolution

Talus flatirons

Ramblas and arroyos

Alluvial fans

Desert rivers

Paleolakes

Dune systems

Introduction

Active and inactive dunes

Paleoclimatic information from dune systems

Climate change in desert regions and uncertainties

Causes of paleoclimatic oscillations during the late quaternary

21.2 TROPICAL REGIONS

Introduction

Biological modifications

Geomorphological evidence

Regolith and relict weathering profiles

Inselbergs

Fluvial systems

Eolian activity

REFERENCES

INDEX

Author Bio

Mateo Gutiérrez Elorza, Emeritus Professor of Geomorphology at the Science Faculty of Zaragoza University served as vice-director of the Teruel University College and managed post-doctoral courses in the Sao Paolo University (USP-Brazil) and San Juan University (Argentine). He was the First President of the Spanish Society of Geomorphology (1987-1990), and he is currently Corresponding Academic of the Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de Madrid (since 1992) and member of the Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas, Quimicas y Naturales de Zaragoza (since 1996). Professor Gutiérrez was member of the IAG Executive Committee (2001-2005) and the main organizer of the 6th International Conference of Geomorphology held in Zaragoza (2005).

He has published four books: Geomorfologia de España (1994), Rueda. Madrid; Geomorfología Climática (2001), Omega, Barcelona; Climatic Geomorphology (2005), Elsevier, Amsterdam; and Geomorfología (2008) Pearson/Prentice Hall. He is also the author of more than 200 papers in journals of the SCI and other publications. His scientific work is mainly focused on karst and geomorphology in arid regions.

Name: Geomorphology (Paperback)CRC Press 
Description: By Mateo Gutierrez. This book provides a detailed coverage of the landforms of Planet Earth and the processes that shaped them. The study of these morphologies, some of which formed during past geological periods under environmental conditions very different from those of...
Categories: Geology - Earth Sciences, Environmental Geology, Landscape Conservation, Maintenance and Management