Green ICT & Energy
From Smart to Wise Strategies
Edited by Jaco H. Appelman, Anwar Osseyran, Martijn Warnier
CRC Press – 2013 – 172 pages
Series: Sustainable Energy Developments
This book provides the connection between the growing body of literature on sustainability and the topics of energy and ICT. It aims to show how stakeholders active in this area need to play their part ensuring that the ICT-sector evolves towards a sector that can lead through “greening by IT” and also shows that it can “green its own IT” as well. This is the first book that integrates two seemingly incompatible approaches to sustainability: efficiency and effectiveness. The book builds on the efficiency initiatives already taken by industry, but it is not a “how-to-do-it manual”. It offers insight in state of the art approaches to green IT and greening by IT. Attention to important stakeholders outside the sector, e.g. policy makers and the field of education, makes this book comprehensive. A more encompassing view on ICT and sustainability is offered to the reader and, as such, managers in higher education, educators, CIO’s, policymakers and regulators are inspired to integrate their efforts and to contribute to a transition of one of the most important and prominent sectors in our global economy.
1. Editorial introduction: A strategic view on changing an industry
Jaco Appelman, Anwar Osseyran & MartijnWarnier
1.2 State of the art: The ICT sector
1.4 Discussion: Efficiency and effectiveness presuppose each other
2. Creating synergies between approaches and tools for sustainable ICT development
Jaco Appelman, Freek Bomhof & Reinier de Nooij
2.2 Selection of approaches
2.3 Creation of frame of reference
2.4 Analysis and comparison of TNS, CtoC, and EF
2.5 Combining approaches: Discussion
2.6 Consequences for the ICT sector
2.7 Discussion:Ways forward
3. Green IT current developments—A strategic view on ICT changing the global warming trend
3.1 Introduction: Green IT and sense of urgency
3.2 Green IT framework
3.3 Greening the datacenter: The power loss chain
3.4 Green IT and smart grids (Stage I)
3.5 Greening datacenters (Stage II)
3.6 Sustainability through virtualization and cloud computing (Stage III)
3.7 Green software and data life cycle management
3.8 Big data and sustainability
3.9 Sustainability as motor of the new economy
3.10 ICT as an enabler for the low-carbon economy
3.11 Transport sector
3.12 Smart buildings
3.13 Smart industry
3.14 ICT for dematerialization
3.15 Finally, a word about the necessity of avoiding the rebound effect
4. Higher-order sustainability impacts of information and communication technologies
Karel F. Mulder & Dirk-Jan Peet
4.2 The dynamics of information and communications technologies
5. Standardization as ecodesign at sector level
Tineke Egyedi & Sachiko Muto
5.2 The challenge of sustainable ICT
5.3 Economics of standards
5.4 Standards for sustainability
5.5 Example: A standardized charger for mobile phones
5.6 Conclusion: Compatibility standards—a green strategy in a gray sector
6. Increasing green energy market efficiency using micro agreements
Kassidy Clark, MartijnWarnier & Frances Brazier
6.2 Future energy markets
6.3 Market automation
6.4 Micro agreements
7. Framework for measuring the environmental efficiency of IT and setting strategies for green IT: A case study providing guidance to chief information officers
Johanne Punte Kalsheim & Erik Beulen
7.2 Green IT
7.3 Measuring Green IT
7.4 Design requirements
7.5 Framework design
7.6 Case study
7.7 Evaluation and reflection
7.8 Practical recommendations on implementation
7.9 Conclusion and further research
8. Micro-training to support sustainable innovations in organizations
Mariette Overschie, Heide Lukosch, Karel Mulder & Pieter de Vries
8.2 Learning in sustainable innovations
8.3 The challenge for sustainable innovations
8.4 Micro-training to support learning in organizations
8.5 Conclusions and reflection
9. Integration of green IT knowledge in education
9.2 The green IT framework
9.3 Competencies in green IT
9.4 Greening of IT curricula
9.5 Examples of green IT in education
10. Biomimicry: Design and innovation that help reach eco-effective solutions
Saskia Muisenberg, Dayna Baumeister & Jaco Appelman
10.2 Biomimicry is the conscious emulation of life’s genius
10.3 Three levels of biomimicry
10.4 Life’s principles
10.5 Biomimicry and greening by IT
11. Conclusions: Exploring synergies between efficiency and effectiveness
Anwar Osseyran, Jaco Appelman & MartijnWarnier
Jaco Appelman graduated in the Social Sciences at the Radboud University Nijmegen and did his PhD in Management Studies at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. He works at the faculty of Technology, Policy & Management at the Technological University Delft. He conducts research in the areas of Implementation of IT in complex networks and on Sustainability approaches and tooling for socio-technical Innovations.
Martijn Warnier received his PhD in Computer Science at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. After four years as a Postdoctoral Researcher in computer systems group at the VU University Amsterdam, he moved to Delft University of Technology where he currently holds the position of Assistant Professor. His research focuses on management of large scale, distributed systems.
Anwar Osseyran is a CEO with many years of multidisciplinary management experience in various IT-related areas. His tenure at SARA BV and its spin-off Vancis BV is marked by a focus on the benefits that research and business communities can obtain from ICT. Next to his current position as the MD of the national supercomputing center SURFsara BV, he is since 2008 the chair of the Green IT consortium Amsterdam with focus on Greening IT, Greening by IT and the stimulation of the Green economy.
The Contributing Authors
Henk Plessius graduated at the University of Twente and has worked in ICT-education ever since. His experience ranges from lecturer and curriculum developer to consultant and manager. Apart from Green IT, he is interested in problems regarding the interface between organization and information, as well as in modelling and architecture.
Johanne Punte Kalsheim is a graduate student from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands and employed by Ernst & Young in Norway.
Erik Beulen holds the Global Sourcing chair at Tilburg University, the Netherlands and is also employed by KPMG.
Heide Lukosch is Assistant Professor at Delft University of Technology. Her research questions focus on social processes within virtual training environments and simulation games. She is exploring how simulation games can help increase the situational awareness of teams in safety-critical domains. This also includes the use of concepts of (formal and informal) learning, Micro-training and Micro-Gaming, game-based learning and virtual worlds.
Mariette Overschie is researcher and lecturer at Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, in the field of technology and sustainable innovation. She holds a MSc Degree in Industrial Design Engineering, Design for Sustainability. At the moment she is preparing her PhD thesis at TU Delft on the topic "Micro-training to support sustainability in organizations".
Kassidy Clark received his MSc in Computer Science at the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Computer Science at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. His research focusses on service negotiation in large scale, distributed systems, including the Cloud and the Smart Energy Grid.
Frances Brazier is full professor in Engineering Systems Foundations, within the Faculty of Policy and Management, at Delft University of Technology since 2009. Before this she chaired the Intelligent Interactive Distributed Systems Group at the VU University Amsterdam. Her group's research focuses primarily on the design and (self) management of large scale distributed autonomous (adaptive) systems in dynamic environments.
Tineke M. Egyedi is founding director of the Delft Institute for Research on Standardization (DIRoS) and senior researcher at Delft University of Technology. She initiated the game ‘Setting Standards’ (developed with United Knowledge), which has been/is used to teach students (several European universities), US policy makers (NIST) and Chinese standardizers (NEN). She is board member of the European Academy for Standardization (EURAS).
Sachiko Muto is a PhD candidate at Delft University of Technology and currently visiting researcher at UC Berkeley, Center for Science, Technology, Medicine & Society. Her work focuses on government involvement in the making of interoperability standards to achieve public policy goals, e.g. for Smart Grid and eHealth.
Dirk Jan Peet graduated in Chemical Engineering, specializing in bio-process technology. He has developed and taught courses on Technology in Sustainable development at the faculties of Electrical Engineering, Technical Mathematics, Applied Earth Sciences and Chemical Engineering. Dirk Jan presented a first version of a part of this paper in 2005. Unfortunately, Dirk Jan suffered from a chronic disease. He passed away on the 22nd of November 2008.
Karel Mulder graduated in Philosophy of Science, Technology & Society, at the University of Twente and completed a PhD at University of Groningen, Faculty of Management studies. Since 1992 Karel Mulder has worked at TU Delft as Lecturer 'Technology Assessment' at faculty Technology Policy & Management, TU Delft and became project leader of the Project Sustainable Development in Engineering Education at TU Delft. In1999 he became associate professor and head of Technology Dynamics & Sustainable Development unit.
Pieter de Vries is Assistant Professor at the TU Delft coming from the private sector where he is still engaged. He has an interdisciplinary background in Human Geography, Mass Communication, Instructional Technology and Organizational Learning and Technology. His research focus is on technology enhanced learning, learning value management, informal and autonomous learning and comprises industries and higher education. He chairs the workgroup ‘Technologies for Learning’ of the European Society for Engineering Education.
Freek Bomhof completed his MSc Electrical Engineering in 1990. During his work on optimization of business processes through innovative ICT’s, he became interested in the relation between technology and human behaviour in organizations, especially when considering the sustainability effects of that behaviour. With his background in pattern recognition and project management, he tries to quantify this behaviour and its effects in terms of indicators that can be managed from a sustainability viewpoint.
Reinier de Nooij has a PhD in environmental science. He first specialised in biology and biodiversity protection and later also in the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (also known as The Natural Step). Since 2008, he works as an independent trainer and advisor in sustainability of spatial projects.