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Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition

Methods, Techniques and Equipment

By Ratan Raj Tatiya

CRC Press – 2013 – 904 pages

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    978-0-415-62119-9
    May 13th 2013

Description

Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment (2nd edition) covers the latest technologies and developments in the excavation arena at any locale: surface or underground. In the first few chapters, unit operations are discussed and subsequently, excavation techniques are described for various operations: tunnelling, drifting, raising, sinking, stoping, quarrying, surface mining, liquidation and mass blasting as well as construction of large subsurface excavations such as caverns and underground chambers. The design, planning and development of excavations are treated in a separate chapter. Especially featured are methodologies to select stoping methods through incremental analysis.

Furthermore, this edition encompasses comprehensive sections on mining at ‘ultra depths’, mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies, mineral inventory evaluation (ore – reserves estimation) and mine closure. Concerns over Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention, and sustainable development are also addressed in advocating a solution to succeed within a scenario of global competition and recession.

This expanded second edition has been wholly revised, brought fully up-to-date and includes (wherever feasible) the latest trends and best practices, case studies, global surveys and toolkits as well as questions at the end of each chapter. This volume will now be even more appealing to students in earth sciences, geology, and in civil, mining and construction engineering, to practicing engineers and professionals in these disciplines as well as to all with a general or professional interest in surface and underground excavations.

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Excavations and their classification

1.2 Surface excavations

1.3 Underground excavations

1.4 Importance of minerals and brief history of their recovery

1.5 Current status of mineral industry

1.6 Excavation technologies/systems – development & growth

1.7 Unique features of mineral industry

1.7.1 Different phases of mine life

1.8 Brief history of civil work excavations including tunneling

1.9 The current scenario

1.9.1 Population growth

1.9.2 Lifestyle

1.9.3 Globalization

1.9.4 Buyer’s market

1.9.5 Technological developments and renovations

1.9.6 Information technology (IT) and its impacts

1.10 Tomorrow’s mine & civil excavations

1.11 The way forward

Questions

References

2 Rocks, minerals and mineral inventory evaluation

2.1 Formation process and classification

2.1.1 Igneous rocks

2.1.2 Sedimentary rocks

2.1.3 Metamorphic rocks

2.2 Rock cycle & type of deposits

2.3 Texture, grain size and shape

2.3.1 Grain sizes and shapes

2.3.2 Durability, plasticity and swelling potential of rocks

2.4 The concepts of mineral resources and reserves; mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ores

2.4.1 Some important ores – chemical & mineralogical composition

2.5 Geological structures

2.5.1 Geometry of a deposit

2.5.2 Forms of deposits

2.5.3 Structural features of rock mass

2.6 Physical and mechanical characteristics of ores and rocks

2.6.1 Rocks as rock mechanics

2.6.2 Rock composition

2.6.3 Rock strength

2.7 Some other properties/characteristics

2.7.1 Hardness of minerals

2.7.2 Rock breakability

2.8 Related terms – rock and mineral deposits

2.9 Mineral inventory evaluation

2.9.1 Introduction

2.9.2 Grade computation from borehole data

2.9.3 Mineral inventory modelling/estimation techniques

2.9.3.1 Method of polygons

2.9.3.2 Triangle or triangular prism method

2.9.3.3 Cross-sectional method

2.9.3.4 Inverse Square Distance Weighting (IDW) method

2.9.3.5 Classical statistics

2.9.3.6 Geostatistics

2.9.3.7 Non-linear estimation techniques in geostatistics

2.9.4 Important considerations for evaluation of the mineral inventory

2.9.4.1 Homogeneity and mode of origin

2.9.4.2 Geological and mineralogical boundaries

2.9.5 Computation of the mineral inventory

2.9.5.1 Logical steps followed

2.9.5.2 Graphical presentation of data

2.9.5.3 Statistical analysis and cumulative probability distribution

2.9.5.4 Structural analysis – the semi-variogram

2.9.5.5 Trend surface analysis

2.9.5.6 Checking the variogram model

2.9.5.7 Block kriging

2.9.5.8 Block dimensions

2.9.5.9 Kriging procedure

2.9.6 Graphical presentation of the kriged results

2.9.7 Grade-tonnage calculation and plotting the curves

2.9.8 Selection of a suitable mining/stoping method

2.10 Resources classification by UNECE

2.11 The way forward

Questions

References

3 Prospecting, exploration & site investigations

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Prospecting and exploration

3.2.1 Finding signs of the mineral in the locality or general indications

3.2.1.1 Geological studies

3.2.1.2 Geo-chemical studies

3.2.2 Finding the deposit or preliminary proving

3.2.2.1 Geophysical methods/studies/surveys

3.2.2.2 Putting exploratory headings

3.2.3 Exploring the deposits or detailed proving – prospecting drilling

3.3 Phases of prospecting and exploration program

3.4 Site investigations for civil constructions, or any excavation project including tunnels and caverns

3.5 Rocks and ground characterization

3.5.1 Rock strength classification

3.5.2 Rock mass classifications

3.6 Rock quality designation (RQD)

3.6.1 Q (Rock mass quality) system

3.6.2 Geomechanics classification (RMR system)

3.6.3 Rock structure rating (RSR)

3.7 Geological and geotechnical factors

3.8 The way forward

Questions

References

4 Drilling

4.1 Introduction – unit operations

4.2 Primary rock breaking

4.3 Drilling

4.4 Operating components of the drilling system

4.5 Mechanics of rock penetration

4.5.1 Top-hammer drilling

4.5.2 Down-the-hole (DTH) drilling

4.5.3 Rotary drilling

4.5.4 Augur drill

4.5.5 Rotary abrasive drilling

4.6 Rock drill classification

4.6.1 Tunneling/development drill jumbos

4.6.2 Shaft jumbos

4.6.3 Ring drilling jumbos

4.6.4 Fan drilling jumbos

4.6.5 Wagon drill jumbos

4.6.6 DTH drill jumbos

4.6.7 Roof bolting jumbos

4.7 Motive power of rock drills

4.7.1 Electric drills

4.7.2 Pneumatic drills

4.7.3 Hydraulic drills

4.8 Drilling accessories

4.8.1 Extension drill steels

4.8.2 Bits

4.8.3 Impact of rock-type on drilling performance

4.9 Selection of drill

4.10 Summary – rocks drill applications

4.11 Drilling postures

4.12 The way forward

Questions

References

5 Explosives and blasting

5.1 Introduction – explosives

5.2 Detonation and deflagration

5.3 Common ingredients of explosives

5.4 Classification of explosives

5.4.1 Primary or initiating explosives

5.4.2 Secondary explosives

5.4.3 Pyrotechnic explosives

5.4.4 Low explosives

5.4.5 Commercial explosives – high explosives

5.4.5.1 Gelatin explosives

5.4.5.1.1 Dynamites (straight dynamite, ammonia dynamite)

5.4.5.1.2 Blasting gelatin

5.4.5.1.3 Semi gelatin

5.4.5.2 Wet blasting agents

5.4.5.2.1 Slurry explosives

5.4.5.2.2 Emulsions

5.4.5.2.3 Heavy ANFO

5.4.5.3 Dry blasting agents

5.4.5.3.1 Explosive ANFO

5.4.5.3.2 ANFO mixing

5.4.5.3.3 ANFO loading

5.4.5.4 Pneumatic loaders and principles of loading

5.4.5.4.1 Pressure type loaders

5.4.5.4.2 Ejector type loader

5.4.5.4.3 Combine type (combining pressure and ejecting features)

5.4.5.5 Safety aspects

5.4.5.6 Static hazards associated with ANFO loading

5.4.5.7 Special types of explosives

5.4.5.7.1 Permitted explosives

5.4.5.7.2 Seismic explosives

5.4.5.7.3 Overbreak control explosives

5.4.6 Military explosives

5.5 Blasting properties of explosives

5.5.1 Strength

5.5.2 Detonation velocity

5.5.3 Density

5.5.4 Water resistance

5.5.5 Fume characteristics, or class, or medical aspects

5.5.6 Oxygen balance

5.5.7 Completion of reaction

5.5.8 Detonation pressure

5.5.9 Borehole pressure and critical diameter

5.5.10 Sensitivity

5.5.11 Safety in handling & storage qualities

5.5.12 Explosive cost

5.6 Explosive initiating devices/systems

5.6.1 Detonator system

5.6.1.1 Detonators

5.6.1.2 Instantaneous detonators

5.6.1.2.1 Plain detonator

5.6.1.2.2 Instantaneous electric detonators

5.6.1.3 Delay detonators

5.6.1.3.1 Electric delay detonators

5.6.1.3.2 Electronic delay detonators

5.6.1.3.3 Non-electric delay detonators: detonating relays (ms connectors)

5.6.1.3.4 Primadet and anodet non-electric delay blasting systems

5.6.1.3.5 The nonel system

5.6.1.3.6 Combine primadet-nonel system

5.6.1.3.7 The hercudet blasting cap system

5.6.1.3.8 Advantages of short delay blasting

5.6.2 Fuse/cord system

5.6.2.1 Safety fuse

5.6.2.2 Detonating fuse/cord (DC)

5.6.2.3 Igniter cords (IC)

5.7 Explosive charging techniques

5.7.1 Water gel (slurry loader)

5.8 Blasting accessories

5.8.1 Exploders

5.8.2 Circuit testers

5.8.3 Other blasting tools

5.9 Firing systems – classification

5.9.1 While firing with a safety fuse

5.9.2 Firing with electric detonators

5.9.3 Non-electric systems

5.10 Ground blasting techniques

5.10.1 Control/contour blasting

5.10.1.1 Pre-splitting

5.10.1.2 Cushion blasting

5.10.1.3 Smooth blasting & buffer blasting

5.10.1.4 Line drilling

5.11 Secondary breaking

5.11.1 Secondary rock breaking methods

5.11.1.1 With the aid of explosives

5.11.1.1.1 Plaster shooting

5.11.1.1.2 Pop shooting

5.11.1.1.3 Releasing jammed muck from the draw points

5.11.2Without aid of explosives

5.11.2.1 Mechanical rock breaking

5.11.2.1.1 Manual breaking

5.11.2.1.2 Mechanical rock breakers

5.11.2.1.3 Hydraulic rock breakers

5.11.2.1.4 Teledyne rock breaker

5.11.2.2 Electrical rock breaking

5.11.2.2.1 Rock breaking by the use of high frequency current

5.11.2.3 Hydraulic boulder splitter

5.12 Use, handling, transportation and storage of explosives

5.12.1 Magazine

5.13 Explosive selection

5.14 Blasting theory

5.14.1 Adverse impacts of explosives

5.14.1.1 Ground/land vibrations

5.14.1.2 Air blast and noise

5.14.1.3 Rock throw

5.15 Drilling and blasting performance

5.15.1 Percentages pull

5.15.2 Over-break factor

5.15.3 Degree of fragmentation

5.15.4 Overall cost

5.16 Recent trends in explosives and blasting technology

5.17 Concluding remarks

Questions

References

6 Mucking, casting and excavation

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Muck characteristics

6.3 Classification

6.4 Underground mucking units

6.4.1 Overshot loaders

6.4.2 Autoloaders – hopper loaders and LHDs

6.4.2.1 Autoloaders – mucking and delivering

6.4.2.2 Mucking and transporting – load haul and dump units (LHDs)

6.4.2.2.1 Constructional details

6.4.2.2.2 Special provisions

6.4.2.2.3 Buckets of LHD and other dimensions

6.4.2.2.4 LHD tyres

6.4.2.2.5 Distance, gradient and speed

6.4.2.2.6 Ventilation

6.4.2.2.7 Latest developments

6.4.2.3 Desirable features

6.4.2.3.1 Perfect layout

6.4.2.3.2 Suitable drainage and road maintenance

6.4.2.3.3 Well-fragmented muck

6.4.2.3.4 Maintenance

6.4.2.3.5 Trained personnel

6.4.2.4 Advantages

6.4.2.5 Limitations

6.4.2.6 Manufacturers

6.5 Arm loaders

6.5.1 Gathering-arm-loader (GAL)

6.5.2 Arm loaders for sinking operations

6.5.3 Riddle mucker

6.5.4 Cryderman mucker

6.5.5 Cactus-grab muckers

6.5.6 Backhoe mucker

6.6 Scrapers

6.7 Mucking in tunnels

6.7.1 Dipper and hydraulic shovels

6.7.2 Mucking in TBM driven tunnels

6.8 Surface – excavation, loading and casting units

6.9 Wheel loaders – front end loaders

6.10 Backhoe

6.11 Hydraulic excavators

6.12 Shovel

6.13 Dragline

6.13.1 Multi bucket excavators

6.14 Bucket chain excavator (BCE)

6.15 Bucket wheel excavator (BWE)

6.16 Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator

6.17 Total cost calculations

6.18 Governing factors for the selection of mucking equipment

6.19 The way forward

Questions

References

7 Transportation – haulage and hoisting

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Haulage system

7.2.1 Rail or track mounted – rope haulage

7.2.1.1 Rope haulage calculations

7.2.1.1.1 Direct rope haulage system

7.2.1.1.2 Endless rope haulage system

7.2.1.2 Scope and applications of rope haulage

7.2.2 Locomotive haulage

7.2.2.1 Electric locomotives

7.2.2.2 Battery locomotives

7.2.2.3 Combination locomotives

7.2.2.4 Diesel locomotives

7.2.2.5 Compressed air locomotives

7.2.2.6 Other fittings

7.2.2.7 Locomotive calculations

7.3 Trackless or tyred haulage system

7.3.1 Automobiles

7.3.2 LHD

7.3.3 Shuttle car

7.3.4 Underground trucks

7.3.4.1 Trackless or tyred haulage system

7.4 Conveyor system

7.4.1 Belt conveyors

7.4.1.1 Conveyor calculations

7.4.2 Cable belt conveyors

7.4.3 Scraper chain conveyors

7.5 Hoisting or winding system

7.5.1 Head-frame or head-gear

7.5.2 Shaft conveyances

7.5.3 Rope equipment

7.5.4 Classification of hoisting system

7.5.4.1 Multi-rope friction winding system

7.5.5 Hoisting cycle

7.5.6 Calculations of suspended load during hoisting

7.5.7 Use of safety devices with a hoisting system

7.6 Aerial ropeway

7.6.1 Aerial ropeway calculations

7.7 Ropes

7.7.1 Rope calculations

7.8 Track and mine car

7.8.1 Track

7.8.2 Mine cars

7.9 The way forward

Questions

References

8 Supports

8.1 Introduction – necessity of supports

8.2 Classification of supports

8.3 Self support by in-place (in-situ) rock

8.3.1 Support by the use of natural pillars

8.3.2 Use of artificial supports

8.3.2.1 Brick and stone masonry

8.3.2.2 Wooden (timber) supports

8.3.2.2.1 Calculations with regard to wooden supports

8.3.2.3 Steel supports

8.3.2.3.1 Steel props, powered and shield supports

8.3.2.3.2 Rock bolting

8.3.2.4 Concrete supports

8.3.2.5 Support by filling

8.4 Selection of support

8.4.1 Measures to preserve the stability of the stoped out workings or to minimize problems of ground stability

8.5 Effect of ore extraction upon displacement of country rock and surface

8.6 The way forward

Questions

References

9 Drives and tunnels (conventional methods)

9.1 Introduction – function of drives and tunnels

9.2 Drivage techniques (for drives and tunnels)

9.3 Drivage techniques with the aid of explosives

9.3.1 Pattern of holes

9.3.1.1 Mechanized-cut kerf

9.3.1.2 Blasting off the solid

9.3.1.2.1 Parallel hole cuts

9.3.1.2.2 Verification of pattern of holes

9.3.2 Charging and blasting the rounds

9.3.2.1 Placement of primer

9.3.2.2 Stemming

9.3.2.3 Depth of round/hole

9.3.2.4 Charge density in cut-holes and rest of the face area

9.3.3 Smooth blasting

9.3.3.1 Charging and blasting procedure

9.3.3.2 Use of ANFO in drives and tunnels

9.4 Muck disposal and handling (mucking and transportation)

9.5 Ventilation

9.5.1 Mine opening ventilation

9.5.1.1 Using general air flow

9.5.1.2 Using auxiliary fans: forcing, exhaust or contra rotating

9.5.2 Ventilation during civil tunneling

9.6 Working cycle (including auxiliary operations)

9.7 Driving large sized drives/tunnels in tough rocks

9.7.1 Full-face driving/tunneling

9.7.2 Pilot heading technique

9.7.3 Heading and bench method

9.8 Conventional tunneling methods: tunneling through the soft ground and soft rocks

9.9 Supports for tunnels and mine openings

9.9.1 Classification

9.9.2 Selection of supports

9.10 Driving without aid of explosives

9.11 Pre-cursor or prior to driving civil tunnels

9.11.1 Site investigations

9.11.2 Location of tunnels

9.11.3 Rocks and ground characterization

9.11.4 Size, shape, length and orientation (route) of tunnels

9.11.5 Preparatory work required

9.12 Past, present and future of tunneling technology

9.13 Over-break and scaling – some innovations

9.14 Longer rounds – some trials

9.15 The way forward

Questions

References

10 Tunneling by roadheaders and impact hammers

10.1 Tunneling by boom-mounted roadheaders

10.2 Classification boom-mounted roadheaders

10.2.1 Ripper (transverse) type roadheaders – (Cutter heads with rotation perpendicular to the boom axis)

10.2.1.1 Bar type

10.2.1.2 Disc type

10.3 Milling or longitudinal (auger) roadheaders

10.3.1 Borer type roadheaders

10.4 Classification based on weight

10.5 Advantages of roadheaders

10.6 Important developments

10.7 Procedure of driving by the heading machines

10.8 Auxiliary operations

10.8.1 Ground support

10.9 Hydraulic impact hammer tunneling

10.10 Excavation procedure and cycle of operations

10.10.1 Hammer’s working cycle

10.11 Merit and limitations

10.12 Partial face rotary rock tunneling machines

10.13 Excavators

10.13.1 Excavators mounted within shield

10.13.1.1 Excavator buckets

10.14 Excavator with multiple tool miner (MTM) attachments

10.14.1 Excavator mounted within a shield

10.14.2 Excavator-mounted cutter booms (Partial face machines for NATM)

10.15 The way forward

Questions

References

11 Full-face tunnel borers (TBMs) & special methods

11.1 Introduction

11.1.1 Improved understanding

11.2 Tunneling methods and procedures

11.3 Full-face tunneling machines

11.3.1 Full-face tunnel borers (mechanical) TBM – open and shielded

11.3.2 Mechanical excavation of the full cross-section with open type machines

11.3.2.1 Open main beam machines

11.3.2.2 Single shield

11.3.2.3 Double shield

11.3.2.4 Enlarging TBM

11.4 Mini tunnel borers

11.5 Boring system

11.6 Rock cutting tools and their types

11.6.1 Cutting head configuration

11.7 TBM performance

11.7.1 Economical aspects

11.8 Size of unit and its overall length including its trailing gear

11.8.1 Advantages

11.8.2 Disadvantages

11.9 Backup system/activities

11.9.1 Muck disposal

11.9.2 Single track

11.9.3 Double track

11.9.4 Continuous conveyor system

11.9.5 Other back-ups include

11.10 TBMs for soft ground/formations

11.10.1 Full-face shield with picks

11.10.2 Compressed air shields

11.10.3 Slurry shield

11.10.4 Earth pressure balance

11.10.4.1 Segments

11.10.4.2 Back filling

11.10.4.3 Auxiliary construction measures

11.10.5 Developments

11.11 Phases of tunneling project

11.11.1 Tunnel portal

11.11.2 Phases of a TBM project

11.12 Future technology

11.12.1 Hard rock TBMs

11.12.2 Soft ground machines

11.13 New Austrian tunneling method (NATM)

11.13.1 NATM design philosophy and typical features

11.13.2 Ground categories and tunneling procedures

11.13.2.1 Excavation sequence

11.13.3 Semi-mechanized methods

11.14 Tunneling through abnormal or difficult ground using special methods

11.14.1 Ground treatment

11.14.1.1 Reinforcement

11.14.1.2 Treatment that tackles the problems arising due to the presence of water

11.14.1.3 Lowering water table/ground water

11.14.1.4 Use of compressed air to hold back water

11.14.1.5 Grouting

11.14.1.6 Freezing

11.15 Cut and cover method of tunneling

11.16 Submerged tubes/tunnels

11.17 The way forward

Questions

References

12 Planning

12.1 Economic studies

12.1.1 Phases or stages in economic studies

12.1.1.1 Preliminary studies or valuation

12.1.1.2 Intermediate economic study or pre-feasibility study

12.1.1.3 Feasibility study

12.1.1.3.1 Information on deposit

12.1.1.3.2 Information on general project economics

12.1.1.3.3 Mining method selection

12.1.1.3.4 Processing methods

12.1.1.3.5 Ecology

12.1.1.3.6 Capital and operating costs estimates

12.1.1.3.7 Project cost & rates of return

12.1.1.3.8 Comments

12.1.2 Conceptual mine planning and detailed project reports

12.1.2.1 Conceptual studies/models

12.1.2.2 Engineering studies

12.1.2.3 Models and detailed design

12.2 Mine design elements

12.2.1 Mineral resources and reserves

12.2.2 Cutoff grade

12.2.2.1 Mining & process plant input-output calculations (for a copper mining complex)

12.2.2.2 Cutoff grade calculations

12.2.3 Interrelationship amongst the mine design elements

12.2.4 Mine life

12.2.4.1 Phases or stages during mine life

12.3 Dividing property for the purpose of underground mining

12.3.1 Panel system

12.3.2 Level system

12.3.3 Level interval

12.4 Mine planning duration

12.5 Mine development – introduction

12.6 Access to deposit or means of mine access

12.7 System – opening up a deposit

12.7.1 Opening deposit in parts

12.7.2 Opening up the whole deposit

12.8 Positioning and developing the main haulage levels

12.8.1 Selecting development in ore or rock (country rock)

12.8.2 Vertical development in the form of raises

12.8.3 Connecting main levels by ramps/declines/slopes

12.8.4 Determination of optimal load concentration point

12.8.4.1 Analytical method

12.8.4.2 Graphical method: funicular diagram

12.9 Size and shape of mine openings and tunnels

12.10 Pit top layouts

12.11 Pit bottom layouts

12.11.1 Types of pit bottom layouts

12.12 Structures concerning pit bottom layouts

12.13 The way forward

Questions

References

13 Excavations in upward direction – raising

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Raise applications in civil and construction industries

13.3 Classification – types of raises for mines

13.4 Raise driving techniques

13.5 Conventional raising method: open raising

13.6 Conventional raising method: raising by compartment

13.7 Raising by the use of mechanical climbers: Jora hoist

13.8 Raising by mechanical climbers: Alimak raise climber

13.8.1 Preparatory work and fittings

13.8.2 Ignition and telephone systems

13.8.3 Cycle of operations

13.8.4 Performance

13.8.5 Design variants

13.8.6 Air-driven unit

13.8.7 Electrically driven unit

13.8.8 Diesel-hydraulic unit

13.9 Blasthole raising method: long-hole raising

13.9.1 Marking the raise

13.9.2 Equipment installation

13.9.3 Drilling

13.9.4 Raise correlation

13.9.5 Blowing and plugging the holes

13.9.6 Charging and blasting

13.9.7 Limitations

13.9.8 Advantages

13.10 Blasthole raising method: drop raising

13.11 Raising by the application of raise borers

13.12 Raise boring in a package – BorPak

13.13 Ore pass/waste rock pass

13.13.1 Size and shape

13.13.2 Ore pass lining

13.13.3 Design consideration of rock pass/ore pass

13.14 The way forward

Questions

References

14 Shaft sinking

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Location

14.3 Preparatory work required

14.4 Sinking appliances, equipment and services

14.5 Sinking methods and procedure

14.6 Reaching up to the rock head

14.6.1 Pre-sink

14.7 Sinking through the rock

14.7.1 Drilling

14.7.2 Blasting

14.7.3 Lashing and mucking

14.7.4 Hoisting

14.7.5 Support or shaft lining

14.7.6 Auxiliary operations

14.7.6.1 Dewatering

14.7.6.2 Ventilation

14.7.6.3 Illumination

14.7.6.4 Shaft centering

14.7.6.5 Station construction and initial development

14.8 Special methods of shaft sinking

14.9 Piling system

14.10 Caisson method

14.10.1 Sinking drum process

14.10.2 Forced drop-shaft method

14.10.3 Pneumatic caisson method

14.11 Special methods by temporary or permanent isolation of water

14.11.1 Cementation

14.11.1.1 Boring/Drilling

14.11.1.2 Cementation

14.11.1.3 Sinking and walling

14.12 The freezing process

14.12.1 Drilling and lining of boreholes

14.12.2 Formation and maintenance of the ice column

14.12.3 Actual sinking operations

14.12.4 Thawing of ice wall

14.12.5 Freezing – shafts

14.12.6 Ground freezing practices in Germany

14.13 Shaft drilling and boring

14.13.1 Shaft drilling

14.13.2 Shaft boring

14.14 Safety in sinking shafts

14.14.1 Field tests and measurements

14.15 The way forward

Questions

References

15 Large sub-surface excavations

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Caverns

15.2.1 Constructional details – important aspects

15.2.1.1 Construction procedure

15.3 Powerhouse caverns

15.4 Oil storage caverns

15.5 Repository

15.6 Salt cavern storage

15.7 Aquifer storage

15.8 Exhibition hall caverns

15.9 Underground chambers in mines

15.10 Equipment and services selection

15.11 The way forward

Questions

References

16 Underground mining/stoping methods & mine closure

16.1 Introduction

16.1.1 Factors governing choice of a mining method

16.1.1.1 Shape and size of the deposit

16.1.1.2 Thickness of deposit

16.1.1.3 Dip of the deposit

16.1.1.4 Physical and mechanical characteristics of the ore and the enclosing rocks

16.1.1.5 Presence of geological disturbances and influence of the direction of cleats or partings

16.1.1.6 Degree of mechanization and output required

16.1.1.7 Ore grade and its distribution, and value of the product

16.1.1.8 Depth of the deposit

16.1.1.9 Presence of water

16.1.1.10 Presence of gases

16.1.1.11 Ore & country rock susceptibility to caking and oxidation

16.1.2 Desirable features of selecting a stoping method

16.1.3 Classification – stoping methods

16.2 Open stoping methods

16.2.1 Open stoping method – room & pillar stoping

16.2.1.1 Introduction

16.2.1.2 Stope preparation

16.2.1.3 Unit operations

16.2.1.4 Stoping operations

16.2.1.5 Bord and pillar

16.2.1.6 Block system

16.2.1.7 Stope and pillar

16.2.1.7.1 Advantages

16.2.1.7.2 Limitations

16.2.2 Open stoping method – shrinkage stoping

16.2.2.1 Introduction

16.2.2.2 Stope preparation

16.2.2.3 Unit operations

16.2.2.4 Stoping operations

16.2.2.5 Layouts

16.2.2.5.1 Winning the pillars

16.2.2.5.2 Advantages

16.2.2.5.3 Limitations

16.2.3 Open stoping method – sublevel stoping

16.2.3.1 Introduction

16.2.3.2 Sublevel stoping with benching

16.2.3.3 Blasthole stoping

16.2.3.4 Longitudinal sublevel stoping

16.2.3.5 Transverse sublevel stoping

16.2.3.6 Blasthole drilling

16.2.4 Large blasthole stoping

16.2.4.1 Stope preparation (general procedure)

16.2.4.2 VCR method

16.2.4.3 Unit operations

16.2.4.4 Layouts

16.2.4.4.1 Advantages

16.2.4.4.2 Limitations

16.2.4.4.3 Winning the pillars

16.3 Supported stoping methods

16.3.1 Supported stoping method – stull stoping

16.3.1.1 Introduction

16.3.1.2 Unit operations

16.3.1.3 Auxiliary operations

16.3.1.4 Stope preparation

16.3.1.5 Stoping

16.3.1.6 Layouts

16.3.1.6.1 Variants

16.3.1.6.2 Advantages

16.3.1.6.3 Limitations

16.3.2 Supported stoping method: cut & fill stoping

16.3.2.1 Introduction

16.3.2.2 Stope preparation

16.3.2.3 Stoping

16.3.2.4 Unit operations

16.3.2.5 Auxiliary operations

16.3.2.5.1 Advantages

16.3.2.5.2 Limitations

16.3.2.5.3 Variants

16.3.2.6 Cut and fill with flat back

16.3.2.7 Cut and fill with inclined slicing

16.3.2.8 Post and pillar cut and fill stoping

16.3.2.9 Stope drive or undercut and fill stoping

16.3.2.9.1 Filling methods during deep mining

16.3.2.9.2 Top slicing (An undercut-and-fill method)

16.3.2.9.3 Filling materials

16.3.3 Supported stoping method – square set stoping

16.3.3.1 Introduction

16.3.3.2 Stope preparation

16.3.3.3 Stoping

16.3.3.4 Unit operations

16.3.3.5 Auxiliary operations

16.3.3.6 Layouts

16.3.3.6.1 Advantages

16.3.3.6.2 Limitations

16.4 Caving methods

16.4.1 Caving method – longwall mining

16.4.1.1 Introduction

16.4.1.2 Unit operations

16.4.1.3 While mining coal

16.4.1.4 Stope preparation

16.4.1.5 Stoping operations

16.4.1.6 Layouts

16.4.1.6.1 Advantages

16.4.1.6.2 Limitations

16.4.1.7 Mining at ultra depths

16.4.2 Caving method – sublevel caving

16.4.2.1 Introduction

16.4.2.2 Unit operations

16.4.2.2.1 Variants

16.4.2.3 Stope preparation (transverse sublevel caving)

16.4.2.4 Stope preparation (sublevel caving – longitudinal)

16.4.2.5 Layouts

16.4.2.5.1 Advantages

16.4.2.5.2 Limitations

16.4.3 Caving method – block caving

16.4.3.1 Introduction

16.4.3.2 Unit operations

16.4.3.2.1 Variants

16.4.3.3 Methods of draw

16.4.3.4 Stope preparation

16.4.3.5 Layouts

16.4.3.5.1 Advantages

16.4.3.5.2 Limitations

16.5 Common aspects

16.5.1 Stope design

16.5.1.1 Model parameters

16.5.1.2 Design parameters

16.5.2 Application of computers in stope design and economic analysis

16.5.3 Proposed methodology for selection of a stoping method for the base metal deposits with a case study

16.6 Mine liquidation

16.6.1 Liquidation of the stopes of different types

16.6.2 Planning liquidation

16.6.3 Liquidation techniques

16.6.4 Pillar types & methods of their extraction

16.6.4.1 Pillar extraction methods

16.6.4.2 Planning a heavy-blast for liquidation purpose

16.6.5 Case studies

16.6.5.1 Heavy blasting at a copper mine

16.6.5.2 Remnant pillars’ blast at lead-zinc mine

16.6.5.2.1 Blast planning

16.6.5.2.2 Results of the blast

16.7 Planning for mine closure

16.7.1 Introduction

16.7.2 Phases – mine closure

16.7.3 The integrated mine closure planning guidelines (toolkit)

16.7.3.1 Salient features (parameters to be considered) for closure planning

16.7.3.2 Guidelines/toolkit details

16.7.3.3 Glossary

16.8 The way forward

Questions

References

17 Surface excavations

17.1 Introduction – surface mining methods

17.2 Open pit mining

17.2.1 Open pit elements

17.2.1.1 Bench angle or slope

17.2.2 Overall pit slope angle

17.2.2.1 Computation of overall pit slope angle

17.2.3 Stripping ratio

17.2.4 Overall pit profile

17.2.4.1 Coning concept for open pit design

17.2.5 Stripping sequence

17.3 Haul roads

17.4 Ramp and its gradient

17.5 Open cast mining/strip mining

17.5.1 Introduction

17.5.2 Design aspects

17.5.3 Operational details – surface mines

17.5.3.1 Planning

17.5.3.2 Site preparation

17.5.3.3 Opening up the deposit

17.5.4 Development

17.5.4.1 Waste rock dumps

17.5.5 Bench blasting design patterns

17.5.5.1 Linear formulas

17.5.5.2 Power formulas derived by statistical analysis

17.5.5.3 Formulas related to energy transfer in rock blasting, burden and blasthole diameter

17.5.5.4 Tatiya and Adel’s formula to determine burden with respect to blasthole diameter

17.5.5.5 Powder factor method

17.5.6 Drilling and blasting operations

17.5.7 Cast blasting

17.5.8 Muck handling

17.5.9 Selection of excavator and transportation units

17.5.10 Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator

17.5.10.1 Time factor

17.5.10.2 Operational factor (Of)

17.5.10.3 Bucket fill factor (Bf)

17.5.11 Theoretical output from an excavator/hr

17.5.12 Output from a continuous flow unit

17.5.13 Transportation schemes

17.5.14 In-pit crushing and conveying

17.5.15 Dumping site

17.5.16 Integrated or matching equipment complex

17.5.16.1 Global Positioning System (GPS)

17.5.17 Quarrying of dimension stones

17.6 Quarrying of dimension stones

17.6.1 Drilling

17.6.2 Line drilling

17.6.3 Discontinuous or spaced drilling

17.6.4 Drilling and blasting

17.6.4.1 Blast results at Vanga granite quarry in southern Sweden

17.6.5 Wire cutter – helicoid and diamond

17.6.6 Cutter saw and rock channellers (impact cutting machines)

17.6.6.1 Merits

17.6.6.2 Disadvantages

17.7 The diamond belt saw

17.7.1 Water jet technology

17.7.2 Thermal cutting

17.7.3 Underground quarrying

17.8 Earth movers

17.9 The way forward

Questions

References

18 Hazards, occupational health and safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Potential excavation hazards

18.2.1 Hazards (risks) analysis and management

18.3 Safety and accidents

18.3.1 Terminology

18.3.2 Safety strategies

18.3.3 Safety elements

18.3.3.1 People/mine workers

18.3.3.2 The systems

18.3.3.3 The working environment (conditions)

18.3.4 Accidents

18.3.4.1 Accidents/incident analysis & calculations

18.3.4.2 Common accident areas/heads

18.3.4.3 Accident costs

18.3.4.4 Remedial measures

18.3.4.5 Measures/preparedness

18.3.4.6 Hazards analysis methods

18.4 Occupational health and surveillance

18.4.1 Industrial hygiene

18.4.1.1 Aqueous effluents – permissible quality & efficient discharge

18.4.1.2 House keeping

18.4.1.3 The 5S concept

18.4.2 Working conditions

18.4.3 Ergonomics

18.4.3.1 Introduction

18.4.3.2 Impacts of poor ergonomics

18.4.4 Occupational health surveillance

18.4.4.1 Organizational culture and workplace stresses

18.4.4.2 ‘Presenteeism’ – lost performance at work

18.4.4.3 Periodic health surveillance: based on exposure-risk

18.4.4.4 Notified diseases and preventive measures

18.5 Environment degradation and mitigation measures

18.5.1 Balance system/equation

18.5.2 Environmental degradation

18.5.3 Environmental management

18.5.4 Environmental system

18.6 Loss prevention

18.6.1 Classification – losses

18.6.2 Abnormalities

18.6.3 5W-2H analysis

18.6.4 Wastage

18.6.5 Case-study illustrating computation of financial losses

18.6.6 Use of Information Technology (IT) in integrating processes and information

18.7 The way forward

Questions

References

19 Sustainable Development

19.1 Sustainable Development (SD) in mining

19.1.1 Sustainable development

19.1.2 Global issues & backlog on sustainable development

19.1.3 Sustainable development in mining

19.2 Stakeholders and sustainable development

19.2.1 Principles/guidelines for SD by ICMM

19.2.2 Status of SD in mining, based on stakeholders’ views though a survey by globalscan

19.3 Scenarios influencing mining industry

19.3.1 Population growth and resulting impacts/implications

19.3.2 Use of minerals by world’s citizens

19.3.3 Mineral consumption trends

19.3.4 Status of quality, quantity, type of mineral and resources depletion

19.3.5 Mineral consumption prediction

19.3.6 Mining industry’s inherent problems and challenges

19.3.7 Global risk ranking and competitiveness in the mining sector

19.4 Is mining industry equipped to meet the challenges?

19.4.1 Technological developments in mining

19.4.2 Initiatives already taken globally to meet demand of minerals mass consumption

19.5 Proposed strategy to run mines is an economically viable (beneficial) way

19.5.1 Exploration: huge, intensive & speedy together with bringing precision in ore evaluation techniques

19.5.2 Establishing mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ore reserves

19.5.3 Division of mineral property (i.e. orebody or coal deposits into level and panels)

19.5.4 Locale-specific challenges and proposed solutions/way-outs

19.5.4.1 Underground metalliferous mining challenges

19.5.4.2 Underground coal mining challenges

19.5.4.3 Open cast/open pit mines (coal & non coal) challenges

19.5.5 Mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies

19.5.6 Improved fragmentation – a better way to extract minerals (ore, waste rocks, overburden) to save energy

19.5.7 Precision in operations – maximizing recovery

19.5.8 The critical path to full automation

19.5.9 Effective utilization of resources through standardization & benchmarking

19.5.10 Needs-based changes, research and development

19.6 Measures for SD through improvements environmentally, socially and ethically

19.6.1 HSE – a critical business activity for sustainable development

19.6.2 Economic development regional as well as local – A case-study

19.7 Legal compliances and mining policy

19.7.1 Mining laws – legislation

19.7.2 Minerals & mining policy

19.8 Quality of human resources

19.8.1 Academic (educational) status and standard of mining schools

19.9 The ultimate aim

19.9.1 Contented employees & stakeholders

19.9.2 Efficient systems including best practices

19.9.3 Legal compliance including Environment Management Systems (EMS)

19.9.4 World Class Management (WCM)

19.10 The way forward: proposed milestones/strategy

Questions

References

Subject index

Author Bio

Dr. Ratan Tatiya is a consultant in the areas of excavation, construction, mining and allied disciplines and in a career spanning more than 42 years he has held senior positions in the industry, as a professor, researcher and consultant and has worked with multinationals from more than 40 countries. His industrial backgroundhasled to this book being industrially relevant and his academic backgroundhasensured that the fundamentals and basics required to help readers have been included.

Name: Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition: Methods, Techniques and Equipment (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Ratan Raj Tatiya. Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment (2nd edition) covers the latest technologies and developments in the excavation arena at any locale: surface or underground. In the first few chapters, unit operations are...
Categories: Mining, Mineral & Petroleum Engineering, Mining Construction, Tunnelling & Underground Engineering