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Organic Compounds in Soils, Sediments & Sludges

Analysis and Determination

By T Roy Crompton

CRC Press – 2013 – 276 pages

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    978-0-415-64427-3
    November 28th 2012

Description

The increasing awareness of the effects of pollutants in the eco-system and on the development of suitable methods of analysis has stimulated a lot of research recently. This volume comprehensively discusses the range of methods available for the analysis and determination of organic compounds in soils, river and marine sediments and industrial sludges. A review is provided of the instrumentation used in soil and sediment laboratories and an indication of the types of organics that can be determined by each technique. Subsequent chapters discuss the analysis of various types of organics in a logical and systematic manner. Guidance is provided on the applicability of techniques in certain environments, the advantages and disadvantages of using one method over another, likely interference, the sensitivity of particular techniques, and detection limits. The work will be of interest to agricultural chemists, agriculturists concerned with ways in which organic chemicals used in crop or soil treatment permeate the ecosystem and to biologists and scientists involved in fish, plant and insect life. Toxicologists, public health workers, oceanographers, and environmentalists will also find the book beneficial.

Contents

Preface

1 Extraction of organic compounds from soil

1.1 Conventional solvent extraction

1.2 Accelerated solvent extraction

1.3 Pressurised liquid extraction

1.4 Microwave-assisted extraction

1.5 Subcritical water extraction

1.6 Solid-phase microextraction

1.7 Supercritical fluid extraction

References

2 Organic compounds in soils

2.1 Hydrocarbons

2.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons

2.1.2 Aromatic hydrocarbons

2.1.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

2.2 Oxygen containing compounds

2.2.1 Alcohols, ketones and aldehydes

2.2.2 Carboxylic acids

2.2.3 Phenols

2.2.4 Methoxy groups

2.3 Chlorine containing compounds

2.3.1 Chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons

2.3.2 Chloroaromatic hydrocarbons

2.3.3 Chlorophenols

2.3.4 Polychlorobiphenyls

2.4 Nitrogen containing compounds

2.4.1 Aromatic amines

2.4.2 Nitro compounds

2.4.3 N-Oxides

2.4.4 Nitrosamines

2.4.5 Ethylene diamine tetracetric acid

2.4.6 Acrylonitrile

2.4.7 Polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic

2.4.8 Miscellaneous

2.5 Sulphur and phosphorus compounds

2.6 Volatile organic compounds

2.7 Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans

2.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds

2.8.1 Humic and fulvic acids

2.8.2 Mestranol

2.8.3 Trifluoroacetic acid

2.8.4 Flame retardants

2.8.5 Polystyrene

2.8.6 Further compounds

2.9 Mixtures of organic pollutants in soil

2.9.1 Gas chromatography

2.9.2 Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

2.9.3 Purge and trap gas chromatography

References

3 Insecticides and herbicides in soils

3.1 Chlorinated insecticides

3.2 Triazine herbicides soil extraction procedures

3.3 Phenoxy acetic acid herbicides

3.4 Carbamate type insecticides

3.5 Substituted urea herbicides

3.6 Imidazolinone herbicide

3.7 Organophosphorus insecticides

3.8 Fungicides

3.9 Miscellaneous insecticides and herbicides

3.10 Multi insecticide/herbicide mixtures

References

4 Organometallic compounds in soils

4.1 Organoarsenic compounds

4.2 Organolead compounds

4.3 Organotin compounds

4.4 Organomercury compounds

References

5 Extraction of organic compounds from sediments

5.1 Non-saline sediments

5.2 Saline, marine sediments

5.2.1 Filtration methods

5.2.2 Separation by centrifugation

5.2.3 Fractionation methods

5.2.3.1 Fractionation by chemical leaching

5.2.3.2 Fractionation by sedimentation

5.2.4 Other fractionation methods

References

6 Organic compounds in non-saline sediments

6.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

6.2 Oxygen containing compounds

6.2.1 Phenols

6.2.2 Carboxylic acids

6.2.3 Aldehydes and ketones

6.2.4 Phthalate esters

6.2.5 Cationic detergent

6.3 Halogen containing compounds

6.3.1 Volatile aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons

6.3.2 Non-volatile aliphatic chlorohydrocarbons

6.3.3 Organohalogen concentration techniques

6.3.4 Chlorinated dioxins

6.4 Nitrogen containing compounds

6.5 Sulphur containing compounds

6.6 Phosphorus containing compounds

6.6.1 Alkyl and aryl phosphates

6.6.2 Inositol phosphate

6.6.3 Adenosine-5’-triphosphate

6.6.4 Nucleotides

6.7 Insecticides and pesticides

6.7.1 Organophosphorus insecticides

6.7.2 Organochlorine insecticides

6.7.3 Azine type herbicides

6.7.4 Carbamate type herbicides

6.7.5 Phenoxy acetic acid type herbicides

6.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds

6.8.1 Humic and fulvic acid

6.8.2 Detergents

6.8.3 Optical whiteners

6.8.4 Carbohydrates

6.8.5 Uronic acids and aldoses

6.8.6 Pharmaceuticals

6.8.7 Sterols

6.8.8 Miscellaneous

References

7 Organometallic compounds in non-saline sediments

7.1 Organoarsenic compounds

7.2 Organolead compounds

7.3 Organotin compounds

7.4 Organomercury compounds

7.5 Organosilicon compounds

References

8 Organic compounds in saline marine and estuarine sediments

8.1 Marine sediments

8.1.1 Hydrocarbons

8.1.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons

8.1.1.2 Aromatic hydrocarbons

8.1.1.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

8.1.2 Oxygen containing compounds

8.1.2.1 Carbohydrates

8.1.2.2 Surfactants

8.1.3 Halogen containing compounds

8.1.3.1 Chlorophenols

8.1.3.2 Polychlorobiphenyls

8.1.4 Nitrogen containing organic compounds

8.1.5 Sulphur containing organic compounds

8.1.6 Insecticides, pesticides and herbicides

8.1.6.1 Organochlorine insecticides

8.1.6.2 Organophosphorus pesticides

8.1.7 Miscellaneous

8.1.7.1 Priority pollutants

8.1.7.2 Humic and fulvic acids

8.2 Estuary sediments

8.2.1 Chlorobenzenes

8.2.2 Hexachlorophene

8.2.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated insecticides and polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons

8.2.4 Sterols

8.2.5 Quaternary ammonium compounds

8.3 Lacustrine sediments

8.3.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons

8.3.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

8.3.3 Sterols

8.3.4 Unsubstituted and hydroxy substituted fatty acids

References

9 Organometallic compounds in saline sediments

9.1 Organoarsenic compounds

9.2 Organolead compounds

9.3 Organotin compounds

9.4 Organomercury compounds

References

10 Organic compounds in sludges

10.1 Hydrocarbons

10.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons

10.1.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

10.2 Oxygen containing compounds

10.2.1 Alcohols

10.2.2 Aldehydes

10.2.3 Carboxylic acids

10.2.4 Phenols

10.2.5 Surface active agents

10.2.5.1 Anionic types

10.2.5.2 Cationic detergents

10.2.5.3 Non-ionic detergents

10.3 Chlorine containing compounds

10.3.1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons

10.3.2 Haloforms

10.3.3 Chlorophenols

10.3.4 Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid

10.3.5 Polychloroinated biphenyl

10.3.6 Polychloro-p-benzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans

10.4 Nitrogen containing compounds

10.4.1 Nitrilo acetic acid

10.4.2 Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid

10.4.3 Nitrosamines

10.4.4 Guanidines

10.4.5 Miscellaneous nitrogen compounds

10.5 Sulphur containing compounds

10.5.1 Alkyl sulphides

10.5.2 Thiosteroids

10.6 Phosphorus compounds

10.7 Insecticides pesticides herbicides

10.7.1 Organochlorine insecticides

10.7.2 Carbamate insecticides and fungicides

10.7.3 Organophosphorus insecticides

10.7.4 Triazine herbicides

10.7.5 Phenoxy acetic and herbicide

10.7.6 Mirex

10.8 Miscellaneous organic compounds

10.8.1 Cobolamin

10.8.2 Nucleic acids

10.8.3 Adenosine phosphate ether

10.8.4 Humic and fulvic acids

10.8.5 Sucralose

10.8.6 Organic carbon

10.8.7 Miscellaneous

10.9 Mixtures of organic compounds

10.9.1 Gas chromatography

10.9.2 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

10.9.3 High performance liquid chromatography

10.9.4 Ion-exchange chromatography

10.9.5 Gel filtration chromatography

10.9.6 Preconcentration

References

11 Organometallic compounds in sludges

11.1 Organolead compounds

11.2 Organotin compounds

11.3 Organomercury compounds

References

Index

Name: Organic Compounds in Soils, Sediments & Sludges: Analysis and Determination (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By T Roy Crompton. The increasing awareness of the effects of pollutants in the eco-system and on the development of suitable methods of analysis has stimulated a lot of research recently. This volume comprehensively discusses the range of methods available for the...
Categories: Water Engineering, Analytical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Soil Science