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Maintenance and Safety of Aging Infrastructure

Edited by Dan Frangopol, Yiannis Tsompanakis

CRC Press – 2015 – 746 pages

Series: Structures and Infrastructures

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Description

This book presents the latest scientific research and application practice findings in the engineering field of “maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure”. The selected invited contributions will provide an overview of the use of advanced computational and/or experimental techniques in damage and vulnerability assessment as well as maintenance and retrofitting of aging structures and infrastructures (buildings, bridges, lifelines, etc) for minimization of losses and life-cycle-cost. Cost-competent maintenance and management of civil infrastructure requires balanced consideration of both the structure performance and the total cost accrued over the entire life-cycle. Another major problem is that the structure performance is usually reduced during its functioning due to environmental and other factors. Thus, current structural condition state is usually assessed by visual inspection or more advanced automatic structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, maintenance managers often require a list of prioritized maintenance interventions for civil infrastructure on an annual and/or long-term basis. Various unavoidable uncertainties associated with both randomness (i.e., aleatory uncertainty) and imperfect knowledge (i.e., epistemic uncertainty) also play a crucial role in management and maintenance of engineering systems. Taking into account the aforementioned issues, this volume aims to present the recent developments of life-cycle maintenance and management planning for deteriorating civil infrastructure considering simultaneously multiple and often competing criteria in terms of condition, safety and life-cycle cost.

Contents

Editorial

About the Book Series Editor

Preface

About the Editors

Contributors List

Author Data

1 Reliability-based Durability Design and Service Life Assessment of Concrete Structures in a Marine Environment

Mitsuyoshi Akiyama, Dan M. Frangopol and Hiroshi Matsuzaki

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Durability Design Criterion of RC Structures in a Marine Environment

1.2.1 Reliability Prediction

1.2.2 Durability Design Criterion based on Reliability

1.3 Life-cycle Reliability Estimation of Deteriorated Existing RC Structures

1.3.1 Effect of Spatial Distribution of Rebar Corrosion on Flexural Capacity of RC Beams

1.3.2 Updating the Reliability of Existing RC Structures by Incorporating Spatial Variability

1.4 Conclusions

1.5 References

2 Designing Bridges for Inspectability and Maintainability

Sreenivas Alampalli

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Bridge Inspection

2.3 Bridge Maintenance

2.4 Role of Planning and Design

2.5 Designing for Inspectability and Maintainability

2.5.1 Bridge Type Selection

2.5.1.1 Redundancy

2.5.1.2 Jointless Bridges

2.5.1.3 Weathering Steel

2.5.1.4 Skew

2.5.1.5 Material Type

2.5.2 Bridge Details

2.5.2.1 Bearings and Jacking Details

2.5.2.2 Deck Drainage and Scuppers

2.5.2.3 Joints

2.5.2.4 Steel Details

2.5.3 Access

2.5.3.1 Abutments and Piers

2.5.3.2 Trusses and Arches

2.5.3.3 Girder Bridges

2.5.3.4 Bridge Railing and Fencing

2.6 Complex, Unique and Signature Bridges

2.6.1 Specialized Procedures Requirement for Complex and Unique Bridges

2.6.2 Movable Bridges

2.6.3 Signature Bridges

2.6.4 Bridge Security

2.7 Conclusions

2.8 References

3 Structural Vulnerability Measures for Assessment of Deteriorating Bridges in Seismic Prone Areas

Alice Alipour and Behrouz Shafei

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Numerical Modeling of Chloride Intrusion

3.2.1 Evaporable Water Content

3.2.2 Chloride Binding Capacity

3.2.3 Reference Chloride Diffusion Coefficient

3.3 Chloride Diffusion Coefficient

3.3.1 Ambient Temperature

3.3.2 Relative Humidity

3.3.3 Age of Concrete

3.3.4 Free Chloride Content

3.4 Estimation of Corrosion Initiation Time

3.5 Extent of Structural Degradation

3.6 Reinforced Concrete Bridge Models

3.6.1 Material Properties

3.6.2 Superstructure

3.6.3 Columns

3.6.4 Abutments

3.6.5 Foundation

3.7 Structural Capacity Evaluation of Deteriorating Bridges

3.8 Seismic Performance of Deteriorating Bridges

3.8.1 Probabilistic Life-Time Fragility Analysis

3.8.2 Seismic Vulnerability Index for Deteriorating Bridges

3.9 Conclusions

3.10 References

4 Design Knowledge Gain by Structural Health Monitoring

Stefania Arangio and Franco Bontempi

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Knowledge and Design

4.3 System Engineering Approach & Performance-based Design

4.4 Structural Dependability

4.5 Structural Health Monitoring

4.5.1 Structural Identification

4.5.2 Neural Network-Based Data Processing

4.6 Knowledge Gain by Structural Health Monitoring: A Case Study

4.6.1 Description of the Considered Bridge and Its Monitoring System

4.6.2 Application of the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition

4.6.3 Application of a Neural Networks-Based Approach

4.7 Conclusions

4.8 References

5 Emerging Concepts and Approaches for Efficient and Realistic Uncertainty Quantification

Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou and Edoardo Patelli

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Advanced Stochastic Modelling and Analysis Techniques

5.2.1 General Remarks

5.2.2 Versatile Signal Processing Techniques for Spectral Estimation in Civil Engineering

5.2.2.1 Spectral Analysis: The Fourier Transform

5.2.2.2 Non-Stationary Spectral Analysis

5.2.3 Spectral Analysis Subject to Limited and/or Missing Data

5.2.3.1 Fourier Transform with Zeros

5.2.3.2 Clean Deconvolution

5.2.3.3 Autoregressive Estimation

5.2.3.4 Least Squares Spectral Analysis

5.2.3.5 Artificial Neural Networks: A Potential Future Research Path

5.2.4 Path Integral Techniques for Efficient Response Determination and Reliability Assessment of Civil Engineering Structures and Infrastructure

5.2.4.1 Numerical Path Integral Techniques: Discrete Chapman-Kolmogorov Equation Formulation

5.2.4.2 Approximate/Analytical Wiener Path Integral Techniques

5.3 Generalised Uncertainty Models

5.3.1 Problem Description

5.3.2 Classification of Uncertainties

5.3.3 Imprecise Probability

5.3.4 Engineering Applications of Imprecise Probability

5.3.5 Fuzzy Probabilities

5.3.6 Engineering Applications of Fuzzy Probability

5.4 Monte Carlo Techniques

5.4.1 General Remarks

5.4.2 History of Monte Carlo and Random Number Generators

5.4.2.1 Random Number Generator

5.4.3 Realizations of Random Variables and Stochastic Processes

5.4.4 Evaluation of Integrals

5.4.5 Advanced Methods and Future Trends

5.4.5.1 Sequential Monte Carlo

5.4.6 High Performance Computing

5.4.7 Approaches to Lifetime Predictions

5.4.7.1 Monte Carlo Simulation of Crack Initiation

5.4.7.2 Monte Carlo Simulation of Crack Propagation

5.4.7.3 Monte Carlo Simulation of Other Degradation Processes

5.4.7.4 Lifetime Prediction and Maintenance Schedules

5.5 Conclusions

5.6 References

6 Time-Variant Robustness of Aging Structures

Fabio Biondini and Dan M. Frangopol

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Damage Modeling

6.2.1 Deterioration Patterns

6.2.2 Deterioration Rate

6.2.3 Local and Global Measures of Damage

6.3 Structural Performance Indicators

6.3.1 Parameters of Structural Behavior

6.3.2 Pseudo-Loads

6.3.3 Failure Loads and Failure Times

6.4 Measure of Structural Robustness

6.5 Role of Performance Indicators and Structural Integrity

6.5.1 A Comparative Study

6.5.2 Structural Integrity Index

6.6 Damage Propagation

6.6.1 Propagation Mechanisms

6.6.2 Fault-Tree Analysis

6.7 Structural Robustness and Progressive Collapse

6.8 Structural Robustness and Static Indeterminacy

6.9 Structural Robustness, Structural Redundancy and Failure Times

6.9.1 Case Study

6.9.2 Corrosion Damage and Failure Loads

6.9.3 Robustness and Redundancy

6.9.4 Failure Times

6.10 Role of Uncertainty and Probabilistic Analysis

6.11 Conclusions

6.12 References

7 Extending Fatigue Life of Bridges Beyond 100 Years by using Monitored Data

Eugen Brühwiler

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Proposed Approach

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Structural Safety Verification Format

7.2.3 Determination of Updated Action Effect

7.2.4 Safety Requirements

7.3 Case Study of a Riveted Railway Bridge

7.3.1 Description of the Bridge

7.3.2 Model for Structural Analysis

7.3.3 Monitoring

7.3.4 Fatigue Safety Verification

7.3.4.1 Step 1: Fatigue Safety Verification with Respect to the Fatigue Limit

7.3.4.2 Step 2: Fatigue Damage Accumulation Calculation and Fatigue Safety Verification

7.3.5 Discussion of the Results

7.4 Case Study of a Highway Bridge Deck in Posttensioned Concrete

7.4.1 Motivation

7.4.2 Monitoring System

7.4.3 Investigation of Extreme Action Effects

7.4.4 Investigation of Fatigue Action Effects

7.4.5 Discussion of the Results

7.5 Conclusions

7.6 References

8 Management and Safety of Existing Concrete Structures via Optical Fiber Distributed Sensing

Joan R. Casas, Sergi Villalba and Vicens Villalba

8.1 Introduction

8.2 OBR Technology: Description and Background

8.3 Application to Concrete Structures

8.3.1 Laboratory Test in a Reinforced Concrete Slab

8.3.1.1 OBR Sensors Application

8.3.2 Prestressed Concrete Bridge

8.3.2.1 Reading Strains under 400kN Truck

8.3.2.2 Reading Strains under Normal Traffic and 400kN Static Load

8.3.3 Concrete Cooling Tower

8.3.3.1 OBR sensors application

8.4 Results and Discussion

8.5 Conclusions

8.6 References

9 Experimental Dynamic Assessment of Civil Infrastructure

Álvaro Cunha, Elsa Caetano, Filipe Magalhães and Carlos Moutinho

9.1 Dynamic Testing and Continuous Monitoring of Civil Structures

9.2 Excitation and Vibration Measurement Devices

9.3 Modal Identification

9.3.1 Overview of EMA and OMA Methods

9.3.2 Pre-processing

9.3.3 Frequency Domain Decomposition

9.3.4 Stochastic Subspace Identification

9.3.5 Poly-reference Least Squares Frequency Domain

9.4 Mitigation of Environmental Effects on Modal Estimates and Vibration Based Damage Detection

9.5 Examples of Dynamic Testing and Continuous Dynamic Monitoring

9.5.1 Dynamic Testing

9.5.2 Continuous Dynamic Monitoring

9.5.2.1 Continuous Monitoring of Pedro e Inês Lively Footbridge

9.5.2.2 Continuous Monitoring of Infante D. Henrique Bridge

9.5.2.3 Continuous Monitoring of Braga Stadium Suspension Roof

9.6 Conclusions

9.7 References

10 Two Approaches for the Risk Assessment of Aging Infrastructure with Applications

David De Leon Escobedo, David Joaquín Delgado-Hernandez and Juan Carlos Arteaga-Arcos

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Use of the Expected Life-Cycle Cost to Derive Inspection Times and Optimal Safety Levels

10.2.1 Highway Concrete Bridge in Mexico

10.2.2 Oil Offshore Platform in Mexico

10.2.2.1 Assessment of Structural Damage

10.2.2.2 Initial, Damage and Life-Cycle Cost

10.2.2.3 Optimal Design of an Offshore Platform

10.2.2.4 Effects of Epistemic Uncertainties

10.2.2.5 Minimum Life-Cycle Cost Designs

10.3 Using Bayesian Networks to Assess the Economical Effectiveness of Maintenance Alternatives

10.3.1 Bayesian Networks

10.3.2 BN for the Risk Assessment of Earth Dams in Central Mexico

10.4 Conclusions and Recommendations

10.5 References

11 Risk-based Maintenance of Aging Ship Structures

Yordan Garbatov and Carlos Guedes Soares

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Corrosion Deterioration Modelling

11.3 Nonlinear Corrosion Wastage Model Structures

11.3.1 Corrosion Wastage Model Accounting for Repair

11.3.2 Corrosion Wastage Model Accounting for the Environment

11.3.3 Corrosion Degradation Surface Modelling

11.4 Risk-based Maintenance Planning

11.4.1 Analysing Failure Data

11.4.2 Optimal Replacement – Minimization of Cost

11.4.3 Optimal Replacement – Minimization of Downtime

11.4.4 Optimal Inspection to Maximize the Availability

11.4.5 Comparative Analysis of Corroded Deck Plates

11.4.6 Risk-based Maintenance of Tankers and Bulk Carriers

11.5 Conclusions

11.6 References

12 Investigating Pavement Structure Deterioration with a Relative Evaluation Model

Kiyoyuki Kaito, Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Kengo Obama

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Framework of the Study

12.2.1 Deterioration Characteristics of the Pavement Structure

12.2.2 Benchmarking and Relative Evaluation

12.3 Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model

12.3.1 Preconditions for Model Development

12.3.2 Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model

12.3.3 Estimation of a Mixed Markov Deterioration Hazard Model

12.3.4 Estimation of the Heterogeneity Parameter

12.4 Benchmarking and Evaluation Indicator

12.4.1 Benchmarking Evaluation

12.4.2 Road Surface State Inspection and Benchmarking

12.4.3 Relative Evaluation and the Extraction of Intensive Monitoring Sections

12.4.4 FWD Survey and the Diagnosis of the Deterioration of a Pavement Structure

12.5 Application Study

12.5.1 Outline

12.5.2 Estimation Results

12.5.3 Relative Evaluation of Deterioration Rate

12.5.4 FWD Survey for Structural Diagnosis

12.5.5 Relation between the Heterogeneity Parameter and the Results of the FWD Survey

12.5.6 Perspectives for Future Studies

12.6 Conclusions

12.7 References

13 Constructs for Quantifying the Long-term Effectiveness of Civil Infrastructure Interventions

Steven Lavrenz, Jackeline Murillo Hoyos and Samuel Labi

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The Constructs for Measuring Interventions Effectiveness

13.2.1 Life of the Intervention

13.2.1.1 Age-based Approach

13.2.1.2 Condition-based Approach

13.2.1.3 The Issue of Censoring and Truncation on the Age- and Condition-based Approaches

13.2.2 Extension in the Life of the Infrastructure due to the Intervention

13.2.3 Increase in Average Performance of the Infrastructure over the Intervention Life

13.2.4 Increased Area Bounded by Infrastructure Performance Curve due to the Intervention

13.2.5 Reduction in the Cost of Maintenance or Operations Subsequent to the Intervention

13.2.6 Decrease in the Likelihood that a Specific Distress will Start to Occur within a Specified Time Period After the Intervention; or, the Increase in Time Taken for Distress to Initiate

13.3 Conclusions

13.4 References

14 Risk Assessment and Wind Hazard Mitigation of Power Distribution Poles

Yue Li, Mark G. Stewart and Sigridur Bjarnadottir

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Design of Distribution Poles

14.3 Design (Nominal) Load (Sn)

14.4 Design (Nominal) Resistance (Rn) and Degradation of Timber Poles

14.5 Hurricane Risk Assessment of Timber Poles

14.6 Hurricane Mitigation Strategies and Their Cost-effectiveness

14.6.1 Mitigation Strategies

14.6.2 Cost of Replacement (Crep) and Annual Replacement Rate (δ)

14.6.3 Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCC) for Cost-effectiveness Evaluation

14.7 Illustrative Example

14.7.1 Design

14.7.2 Risk Assessment

14.7.2.1 Hurricane Fragility

14.7.2.2 Updated Annual pf Considering Effects of Degradation and Climate Change

14.7.3 Cost-effectiveness of Mitigation Strategies

14.8 Conclusions

14.9 References

15 A Comparison between MDP-based Optimization Approaches for Pavement Management Systems

Aditya Medury and Samer Madanat

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Methodology

15.2.1 Top-Down Approach

15.2.2 Bottom-Up Approaches

15.2.2.1 Two Stage Bottom-Up Approach

15.2.2.2 Modified Two Stage Bottom-Up Approach: Incorporating Lagrangian Relaxation Methods

15.2.3 Obtaining Facility-Specific Policies using Top-Down Approach: A Simultaneous Network Optimization Approach

15.3 Parametric Study

15.3.1 Results

15.3.2 Implementation Issues

15.4 Conclusions and Future Work

15.5 References

16 Corrosion and Safety of Structures in Marine Environments

Robert E. Melchers

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Structural Reliability Theory

16.3 Progression of Corrosion with Time

16.4 Plates, Ships, Pipelines and Sheet Piling

16.5 Mooring Chains

16.6 Extreme Value representation of Maximum Pit Depth Uncertainty

16.7 Effect of Applying the Frechet Extreme Value Distribution

16.8 Discussion of the Results

16.9 Conclusions

16.10 References

17 Retrofitting and Refurbishment of Existing Road Bridges

Claudio Modena, Giovanni Tecchio, Carlo Pellegrino, Francesca da Porto, Mariano Angelo Zanini and Marco Donà

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Retrofitting and Refurbishment of Common RC Bridge Typologies

17.2.1 Degradation Processes

17.2.1.1 Concrete Deterioration due to Water Penetration

17.2.1.2 Cracking and Spalling of Concrete Cover due to Carbonation and Bar Oxidation

17.2.2 Original Design and Construction Defects

17.2.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of Existing RC Bridges

17.2.3.1 Rehabilitation and Treatment of the Deteriorated Surfaces

17.2.3.2 Static Retrofit

17.2.3.3 Seismic Retrofit

17.2.3.4 Functional Refurbishment

17.3 Assessment and Retrofitting of Common Steel Bridge Typologies

17.3.1 Original Design Defects – Fatigue Effects

17.3.2 Degradation Processes

17.3.3 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of the Existing Steel Decks

17.3.3.1 Repair Techniques for Corroded Steel Members

17.3.3.2 Rehabilitation and Strengthening Techniques for Fatigue-induced Cracks

17.4 Assessment and Retrofitting of Common Masonry Bridge Typologies

17.4.1 Degradation Processes and Original Design Defects

17.4.2 Rehabilitation and Retrofit of Existing Masonry Arch Bridges

17.4.2.1 Barrel Vault

17.4.2.2 Spandrel Walls, Piers, Abutments and Foundations

17.5 Conclusions

17.6 References

18 Stochastic Control Approaches for Structural Maintenance

Konstantinos G. Papakonstantinou and Masanobu Shinozuka

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Discrete Stochastic Optimal Control with Full Observability

18.2.1 State Augmentation

18.3 Stochastic Optimal Control with Partial Observability

18.3.1 Bellman Backups

18.4 Value Function Approximation Methods

18.4.1 Approximations based on MDP and Q-functions

18.4.2 Grid-based Approximations

18.4.3 Point-based Solvers

18.4.3.1 Perseus Algorithm

18.5 Optimum Inspection and Maintenance Policies with POMDPs

18.5.1 POMDP Modeling

18.5.1.1 States and Maintenance Actions

18.5.1.2 Observations and Inspection Actions

18.5.1.3 Rewards

18.5.1.4 Joint Actions and Summary

18.6 Results

18.6.1 Infinite Horizon Results

18.6.2 Finite Horizon Results

18.7 Conclusions

18.8 References

19 Modeling Inspection Uncertainties for On-site Condition Assessment using NDT Tools

Franck Schoefs

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Uncertainty Identification and Modeling during Inspection

19.2.1 Sources of Uncertainties: From the Tool to the Decision

19.2.1.1 Aleatory Uncertainties

19.2.1.2 Epistemic Uncertainties

19.2.2 Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty Modelling

19.2.2.1 Probabilistic Modeling of PoD and PFA from Signal Theory

19.2.2.2 Probabilistic Assessment of PoD and PFA from Statistics (Calibration)

19.2.2.3 The ROC Curve as Decision Aid-Tool and Method for Detection Threshold Selection: The α–δ Method

19.2.2.4 Case of Multiple Inspections

19.2.2.5 Spatial and Time Dependence of ROC Curves and Detection Threshold for Degradation Processes

19.3 Recent Concepts for Decision

19.3.1 Bayesian Modeling for Introducing New Quantities

19.3.2 Discussion on the Assessment of PCE

19.3.3 Definition of the Cost Function for a Risk Assessment

19.3.3.1 Modelling and Illustration

19.3.3.2 Use of the α–δ Method

19.3.4 Definition of a Two Stage Inspection Model

19.4 Recent Developpements about Spatial Fields Assesment and Data Fusion

19.5 Summary

19.6 References

20 The Meaning of Condition Description and Inspection Data Quality in Engineering Structure Management

Marja-Kaarina Söderqvist

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Engineering Structures

20.3 The Inspection System

20.3.1 General Description

20.3.2 Goals of Inspection

20.3.3 Inspection Types and Intervals

20.3.4 Handbooks and Guidelines

20.3.5 Inspection Data

20.3.6 Use of Inspection Results

20.4 Condition Indicators

20.4.1 General

20.4.2 Data Estimated in Inspections

20.4.3 Data Processed by the Owner

20.5 The Management of Bridge Inspection Data Quality

20.5.1 General Rules

20.5.2 Tools for Data Quality Control

20.5.3 Training of Inspectors

20.5.4 Quality Measurement Process: A Case Application

20.5.4.1 Bridge Inspector Qualifications

20.5.4.2 Day for Advanced Training

20.5.4.3 Quality Measurements

20.5.4.4 Quality Reports of the Bridge Register

20.5.4.5 Follow up of Quality Improvement Methods

20.6 Prediction of Structure Condition

20.6.1 Age Behaviour Modelling

20.6.2 The Finnish Reference Bridges

20.6.2.1 Model Simulation

20.7 Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation Policy

20.7.1 Goals and Targets

20.7.2 Central Policy Definitions in the Management Process

20.7.3 Maintenance and Repair Planning

20.8 Conclusions

20.9 References

21 Climate Adaptation Engineering and Risk-based Design and Management of Infrastructure

Mark G. Stewart, Dimitri V. Val, Emilio Bastidas-Arteaga, Alan O’Connor and Xiaoming Wang

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Modelling Weather and Climate-related Hazards in Conditions of Climate Change

21.2.1 Climate Modelling

21.2.2 Modelling Extreme Events under Non-Stationary Conditions

21.2.2.1 Generalised Extreme Value Distribution for Block Maxima

21.2.2.2 Generalised Pareto Distribution for Threshold Exceedance

21.2.2.3 Point Process Characterisation of Extremes

21.3 Impacts of Climate Change

21.3.1 Corrosion and Material Degradation

21.3.2 Frequency and Intensity of Climate Hazards

21.3.3 Sustainability and Embodied Energy Requirements for Maintenance Strategies

21.4 Risk-Based Decision Support

21.4.1 Definition of Risk

21.4.2 Cost-Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies

21.5 Case Studies of Optimal Design and Management of Infrastructure

21.5.1 Resilience of Interdependent Infrastructure Systems to Floods

21.5.2 Strengthening Housing in Queensland Against Extreme Wind

21.5.3 Climate Change and Cost-Effectiveness of Adaptation Strategies in RC Structures Subjected to Chloride Ingress

21.5.4 Designing On- and Offshore Wind Energy Installations to Allow for Predicted Evolutions in Wind and Wave Loading

21.5.5 Impact and Adaptation to Coastal Inundation

21.6 Research Challenges

21.7 Conclusions

21.8 References

22 Comparing Bridge Condition Evaluations with Life-Cycle Expenditures

Bojidar Yanev

22.1 Introduction: Networks and Projects

22.2 Network and Project Level Condition Assessments

22.2.1 Potential Hazards (NYS DOT)

22.2.2 Load Rating (AASHTO, 2010)

22.2.3 Vulnerability (NYS DOT)

22.2.4 Serviceability and Sufficiency (NBI)

22.2.5 Diagnostics

22.3 Bridge-Related Actions

22.3.1 Maintenance

22.3.2 Preservation

22.3.3 Repair and Rehabilitation

22.4 The New York City Network – Bridge Equilibrium of Supply/Demand

22.5 Network Optimization/Project Prioritization

22.5.1 The Preventive Maintenance Model

22.5.2 The repair model

22.6 Conclusions

22.7 References

23 Redundancy-based Design of Nondeterministic Systems

Benjin Zhu and Dan M. Frangopol

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Redundancy Factor

23.2.1 Definition

23.2.2 Example

23.3 Effects of Parameters on Redundancy Factor

23.4 Redundancy Factors of Systems with Many Components

23.4.1 Using the RELSYS program

23.4.2 Using the MCS-based program

23.5 Limit States for Component Design

23.6 A Highway Bridge Example

23.6.1 Live Load Bending Moments

23.6.2 Dead Load Moments

23.6.3 Mean Resistance of Girders

23.6.4 An Additional Case: βsys,target =4.0

23.7 Conclusions

23.8 References

Author Index

Subject Index

Structures and Infrastructures Series

Author Bio

Professor Dan M. Frangopol is the first holder of the Fazlur R. Khan Endowed Chair of Structural Engineering and Architecture at Lehigh University. His main research interests are in the application of probabilistic concepts and methods to civil and marine engineering, including structural reliability, probability-based design and optimization of buildings, bridges and naval ships, structural health monitoring, life-cycle performance maintenance and management of structures and infrastructures under uncertainty, risk-based assessment and decision making, infrastructure resilience to disasters, and stochastic mechanics. Prof. Frangopol is the Founding President of the International Association for Bridge Maintenance and Safety (IABMAS) and of the International Association for Life Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE). He is also the founder of the recently created ASCE-SEI Technical Council on life-cycle performance, safety, reliability and risk of structural systems. He has held numerous leadership positions in national and international professional societies. Prof. Frangopol is the Founding Editor of Structure and Infrastructure Engineering an international peer-reviewed journal. He is also the Founding Editor of the Book Series Structures and Infrastructures. Prof. Frangopol is the author or co-author of more than 300 books, book chapters, and refereed journal articles, and more than 500 papers in conference proceedings. He has edited or co-edited 34 books. Prof. Frangopol has supervised the dissertations of 35 Ph.D. students (seven under current supervision) and the thesis and reports of 50 M.S. students. Many of his former students are university professors in the United States and abroad, and several are prominent in professional practice and research laboratories.

Dr Yiannis Tsompanakis completed his studies (diploma in civil engineering and PhD in computational mechanics) in NTUA, and afterwards he is lecturing in Technical University of Crete (TUC), firstly as a visiting professor (2000-2003) and since 9/2003 as an Assistant Professor and since 9/2010 as an Associate Professor of Structural Dynamics in the Department of Applied Sciences of TUC having a permanent academic employment in TUC. He is expert in development and application of advanced computational models for the numerical simulation structures and infrastructures. His research interests include structural and geotechnical earthquake engineering, geoenvironmental engineering, dynamic soil-structure-fluid interaction, foundations and retaining structures, structural optimization, probabilistic mechanics, structural assessment and retrofitting as wells as artificial intelligence methods in engineering. He has over 150 publications (journal papers, conference papers, book chapters, edited books and journal special issues and conference proceedings. He has organized several conferences and minisymposia. He has participated in many research (Greek and EU) projects as researcher and/or coordinator. Dr Tsompanakis has excellent leadership, interpersonal and negotiating skills and many cooperations with other scientific groups in Greece, USA, UK, Italy, Germany, Serbia, etc. He is reviewer in many archival scientific engineering journals and member of the Editorial Board in several scientific journals. He is the Technical Editor of Structure and Infrastructure Engineering (SIE) Journal, Taylor&Francis Publ. He is the co-editor of the first two volumes in the same Taylor & Francis book series: “Structures & Infrastructures Book Series”, Book Series Editor Dan M. Frangopol.

Name: Maintenance and Safety of Aging Infrastructure (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: Edited by Dan Frangopol, Yiannis Tsompanakis. This book presents the latest scientific research and application practice findings in the engineering field of “maintenance and safety of aging infrastructure”. The selected invited contributions will provide an overview of the use...
Categories: Structural Engineering, Engineering Management, Construction Management