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Soil and Water Contamination, 2nd Edition

By Marcel van der Perk

CRC Press – 2014 – 428 pages

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    978-0-415-89343-5
    November 14th 2013

Description

Soil and Water Contamination, Second Edition gives a structured overview of transport and fate processes of environmental contaminants. Dealing with all topics essential for understanding and predicting contaminant patterns in soil, groundwater and surface water, it contributes to the formation of a solid basis for adequate soil and water pollution control and integrated catchment management. A unique feature of this work is that it does not treat water and soil pollution as independent processes, but as components of an integrated whole. The core of this geoscientific approach is divided into four parts:

• Introduction to the basics of soil and water contamination, such as the fundamentals of environmental pollution and chemistry and the basic properties of soil, groundwater and surface water.

• Source, role, and behaviour of substances in soil and water, treating natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients, heavy metals, radionuclides and organic pollutants as well as emerging substances of concern, their physico-chemical characteristics, behaviour, and toxicity.

• Transport and fate of substances in soil and water, focusing on processes of transport, exchange and transformations like advection, dispersion, adsorption kinetics and biochemical decay. Special attention is paid to the mathematical description and modelling of these processes.

• Patterns of substances in soil and water, explaining spatial and temporal patterns of pollutants in soil, groundwater, and surface water, illustrated by recent case studies from fundamental and applied research.

This comprehensive, successful textbook, now in its second edition, has been conscientiously updated and extended and includes many case studies, examples and exercises sections, providing undergraduate and graduate students in the Earth and Environmental Sciences with all the material necessary for the study of soil and water contamination. In addition, it can serve as a useful source of information for professionals.

Reviews

Praise for the first edition of this title:

"…the clear structure makes searching child’s play…. I did three random searches and in no time located what I was looking for… I can think of no subject that the author has failed to address…Everywhere, the texts are compact, and you get the feeling that you are dealing with the real core of the subject."

Harry Boukes, Consultant Hydrologist, translated from Stromingen 13 (2007) number 2

"I liked the approach taken in this book…to integrate soil and water contamination and not treat them as independant processes. It makes sense form a true environmental perspective that chemistry and soil science and hydrology are considered together…I can recommend this book to advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in the earth and environmental sciences…a useful refreshener to professionals."

Prof. John G. Farmer, Executive Editor, Science of the Total Environment 373 (2007) 603

Contents

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

PART I AN INTRODUCTION TO SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION

1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 Historical perspective

1.2 Environmental pollution

1.3 Environmental pollutants

1.3.1 Classification of pollutants

1.3.2 Background concentrations

1.3.3 Anthropogenic sources

1.4 Ecological impacts

1.5 Spatial and temporal variability and the concept of scale

1.6 Outline and rationale of this book

Exercises

2 BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Units of analysis

2.3 Activity

2.4 Background thermodynamics

2.5 Phases and phase transitions

2.5.1 Phases

2.5.2 Thermodynamic considerations on phase transitions

2.5.3 Partition coefficient

2.5.4 Partitioning between dissolved phase and adsorbed phase

2.5.5 Fugacity

2.6 Chemical equilibrium and kinetics

2.6.1 Equilibrium

2.6.2 Kinetics

2.7 Dissolution–precipitation reactions

2.8 Complexation

2.9 Acid–base reactions

2.9.1 Introduction

2.9.2 Acids

2.9.3 Bases

2.9.4 Buffering

2.10 Redox reactions

VI Soil and Water Contamination

2.10.1 Introduction

2.10.2 Oxidation state

2.10.3 Redox potential

2.10.4 Redox reactions and pe

2.10.5 pH–Eh diagrams

2.11 Further reading on basic chemistry

Exercises

3 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARTMENTS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Soil

3.2.1 Definition of soil

3.2.2 Sources of soil pollution

3.2.3 Soil water

3.2.4 Soil erosion

3.2.5 Physico-chemical conditions in soil

3.3 Groundwater

3.3.1 Definition of groundwater

3.3.2 Sources of groundwater pollution

3.3.3 Physico-chemical conditions in groundwater

3.4 Surface water

3.4.1 Definition of surface water

3.4.2 Bed sediments

3.4.3 Sources of surface water pollution

3.4.4 Physico-chemical conditions in surface water

3.5 Further reading on soils, groundwater, and surface water

Exercises

PART II SOURCES, ROLE, AND BEHAVIOUR OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER

4 SOLID PHASE CONSTITUENTS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Inorganic components

4.2.1 Composition and formation

4.2.2 Aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides

4.2.3 Clay minerals

4.2.4 Asbestos

4.2.5 Nanomaterials

4.3 Organic components

4.3.1 Composition and formation

4.3.2 Interaction with the aqueous phase

4.3.3 Interaction with mineral surfaces

4.3.4 Decomposition of organic matter

4.4 Sorption by soils and sediments

Exercises

5 MAJOR DISSOLVED PHASE CONSTITUENTS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sodium

5.3 Potassium

5.4 Calcium

5.5 Magnesium

5.6 Iron

5.7 Manganese

5.8 Aluminium

5.9 Chloride

5.10 Inorganic carbon

5.11 Sulphate and sulphide

Exercises

6 NUTRIENTS

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Nitrogen

6.2.1 Environmental role and occurrence of nitrogen

6.2.2 Nitrogen cycle

6.2.3 External sources and sinks

6.3 Phosphorus

6.3.1 Environmental role and occurrence of phosphorus

6.3.2 Phosphorus cycle

6.3.3 External sources and sinks

Exercises

7 HEAVY METALS

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Zinc

7.3 Copper

7.4 Lead

7.5 Cadmium

7.6 Nickel

7.7 Chromium

7.8 Mercury

7.9 Arsenic

7.10 Selenium

Exercises

8 RADIONUCLIDES

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Natural radionuclides

8.2.1 Terrestrial radionuclides

8.2.2 Cosmogenic radionuclides

8.3 Man-made radionuclides

8.3.1 Production and releases

8.3.2 Accidental releases

8.3.3 Nuclear weapons

8.3.4 Environmental behaviour and effects of selected man-made radionuclides

Exercises

9 ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Petroleum and derivatives

9.3 Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

9.4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

9.5 Chlorinated hydrocarbons

9.5.1 Aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons

9.5.2 Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)

9.5.3 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

9.5.4 Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT)

9.5.5 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

9.6 Dioxins

9.7 Emerging substances of concern

9.7.1 Current-use pesticides

9.7.2 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

9.7.3 Endocrine-Modulating Chemicals

9.7.4 Microplastics

Exercises

PART III TRANSPORT PROCESSES OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER

10 SYSTEMS AND MODELS

10.1 A systems approach

10.2 The role of mathematical models

10.3 Classification of mathematical models

Exercises

11 SUBSTANCE TRANSPORT

11.1 Mass balance

11.2 Advection

11.2.1 Advection equation

11.2.2 Load calculation and mixing

11.3 Diffusion and dispersion

11.3.1 Molecular diffusion

11.3.2 Turbulent diffusion and mechanical dispersion

11.3.3 Longitudinal dispersion

11.3.4 Transverse dispersion

11.3.5 Numerical dispersion

11.4 Multi-fluid flow

Exercises

12 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Transport equation

12.3 Bottom shear stress

12.4 Sediment deposition

12.5 Sediment erosion

12.6 Long-term soil erosion and deposition

Exercises

13 CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sorption equilibrium and kinetics

13.3 Biological production and degradation

Exercises

14 GAS EXCHANGE

14.1 Henry’s law

14.2 Thin film model

14.3 Reaeration

14.4 Gas exchange controlled on the water side

14.5 Gas exchange controlled on the air side

14.6 Gas exchange in the subsurface environment

Exercises

15 MODEL CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Model performance criteria

15.3 Considerations affecting model choice

Exercises

PART IV PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER

16 PATTERNS IN THE SOIL AND IN THE VADOSE ZONE

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Natural variation in background concentrations

16.3 Variation due to clay and organic matter content

16.4 Lateral variation

16.4.1 Introduction

16.4.2 Effects of fertiliser and pesticide application

16.4.3 Effects of atmospheric deposition

16.4.4 Effects of soil erosion and deposition

16.5 Vertical variation

16.5.1 Introduction

16.5.2 Effects of leaching

16.5.3 Effects of contamination history

16.6 Further reading on contaminants in soil

Exercises

17 PATTERNS IN GROUNDWATER

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Hydrological systems analysis

17.3 Hydrochemical systems analysis

17.4 Effects of lateral variation in contaminant inputs

17.5 Effects of temporal variation in contaminant inputs

17.6 Effects of dispersion

17.7 Effects of retardation

17.8 Effects of acid–base reactions

17.9 Effects of redox reactions

17.10 Further reading on contaminants in groundwater

Exercises

18 PATTERNS IN SURFACE WATER

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Spatial variation in river water composition

18.2.1 Effects of diffuse sources

18.2.2 Effects of point sources 3

18.3 Temporal variation in river water composition

18.3.1 Short-term dynamics

18.3.2 Hysteresis response of dissolved concentrations to changes in discharge

18.3.3 Release of old water

18.3.4 Sediment dynamics

18.3.5 Concentration rating curves

18.3.6 Significance of hydrological events for substance transport

18.3.7 Seasonal dynamics of nutrient concentrations

18.3.8 Long-term dynamics

18.4 Variation in lake water composition

18.4.1 Role of lakes in catchment sediment and nutrient budgets

18.4.2 Lateral variation

18.4.3 Vertical variation during summer stratification

18.4.4 Temporal variation

18.5 Further reading on contaminants in surface water

Exercises

REFERENCES

APPENDIX I THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

APPENDIX 2 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

INDEX

Author Bio

Marcel van der Perk is Assistant Professor of Physical Geography at Utrecht University, where he specialises in soil and water quality issues and spatio-temporal environmental modelling. He teaches courses on soil and water pollution and geographical information systems. His research focuses on measurement, analysis, and modelling of transport and fate of dissolved and sediment-associated contaminants (nutrients, heavy metals, and radionuclides) in soil and water from field to river basin scales.

Name: Soil and Water Contamination, 2nd Edition (Paperback)CRC Press 
Description: By Marcel van der Perk. Soil and Water Contamination, Second Edition gives a structured overview of transport and fate processes of environmental contaminants. Dealing with all topics essential for understanding and predicting contaminant patterns in soil, groundwater and...
Categories: Soil Sciences, Geochemistry, Soil Science, Water Engineering, Water Science, Physical Geography, Hydrology