The Nature of Expertise
Edited by Michelene T.H. Chi, Robert Glaser, Marshall J. Farr
Psychology Press – 1988 – 464 pages
Due largely to developments made in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology during the past two decades, expertise has become an important subject for scholarly investigations. The Nature of Expertise displays the variety of domains and human activities to which the study of expertise has been applied, and reflects growing attention on learning and the acquisition of expertise. Applying approaches influenced by such disciplines as cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science, the contributors discuss those conditions that enhance and those that limit the development of high levels of cognitive skill.
"…the volume is an important contribution to our understanding of the nature of expertise and should be standard reading for scholars in the field as well as lay people wishing to learn about this timely topic. Students of individual differences will find among the chapters solid experimental work and well reasoned theories."
—Personality and Individual Differences
"…[a] substantial contribution as the first important collection of research on this topic…The collection of papers in this volume not only represents a range of approaches, but also captures expert performance in a variety of problem domains."
Contents: M.T.H. Chi, In Memoriam. R. Glaser, M.T.H. Chi, Overview. M.I. Posner, Introduction: What Is It to Be an Expert? Part I:Practical Skills. D.R. Gentner, Expertise in Typewriting. K.A. Ericsson, P.G. Polson, A Cognitive Analysis of Exceptional Memory for Restaurant Orders. J.J. Staszewski, Skilled Memory and Expert Mental Calculation. Part II:Programming Skills. E. Soloway, B. Adelson, K. Ehrlich, Knowledge and Processes in the Comprehension of Computer Programs. J.R. Anderson, P. Pirolli, R. Farrell, Learning to Program Recursive Functions. B. Adelson, E. Soloway, A Model of Software Design. Part IIIIll-Defined Problems. E.J. Johnson, Expertise and Decision Under Uncertainty: Performance and Process. J.A. Lawrence, Expertise on the Bench: Modeling Magistrates' Judicial Decision-Making. J.F. Voss, T.A. Post, On the Solving of Ill-Structured Problems. Part IV:Medical Diagnosis. G.J. Groen, V.L. Patel, The Relationship Between Comprehension and Reasoning in Medical Expertise. A. Lesgold, H. Rubinson, P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, D. Klopfer, Y. Wang, Expertise in a Complex Skill: Diagnosing X-Ray Pictures. W.J. Clancey, Acquiring, Representing, and Evaluating a Competence Model of Diagnostic Strategy.