The Developmental Psychology of Planning
Why, How, and When Do We Plan?
Edited by Sarah L. Friedman, Ellin Kofsky Scholnick
Published August 1st 1997 by Psychology Press – 400 pages
Planning is defined as formulating an organized method for action in advance. Although people do not plan all the time and planning does not occur in every situation, planning skill is central to all human behavior. There are developmental differences in planning skill and in the motivation to plan. Even among adults, variations in the engagement in the planning process are affected by individual attitudes, beliefs, and goals. Planning also has a different meaning at various junctures in one's life. Yet despite the amount of research on planning, many of the studies have focused only on the cognitive processes that enable mature individuals to plan.
A continued exploration of the developmental course of planning, this text attempts to situate cognitive aspects of planning in the context of the social and cultural environment and other psychological processes. Bringing together the contributions of developmental, organizational, and social psychologists, it explains how, when, and why we plan. Finally, it addresses various issues that pertain to the different aspects of planning, from formal problem solving to handling the demands of everyday life.
"…explores various levels and aspects of a comprehensive contextual model of planning and ultimately succeeds in outlining fruitful directions for further research."
"…this book covers many interesting theoretical and clinical topics. I would recommend this book to researchers and clinicians interested in both development and psychopathology across the life span."
Contents: Preface. Part I: Setting the Stage: An Integrative Framework for Understanding Research on Planning. S.L. Friedman, E.K. Scholnick, An Evolving "Blueprint" for Planning: Psychological Requirements, Task Characteristics, and Social-Cultural Influences. Part II: The Origins of Planning. M.M. Haith, The Development of Future Thinking as Essential for the Emergence of Skill in Planning. J.B. Benson, The Development of Planning: It's About Time. J.A. Hudson, B.B. Sosa, L.R. Shapiro, Scripts and Plans: The Development of Preschool Children's Event Knowledge and Event Planning. C.B. Kopp, Young Children: Emotion Management, Instrumental Control, and Plans. Part III: Cognition and Planning. E.K. Scholnick, S.L. Friedman, K.E. Wallner-Allen, What Do They Really Measure? A Comparative Analysis of Planning Tasks. S. Streufert, G.Y. Nogami, Analysis and Assessment of Planning: The View From Complexity Theory. S. Ellis, R.S. Siegler, Planning as a Strategy Choice, or Why Don't Children Plan When They Should? C.A. Berg, J. Strough, K. Calderone, S.P. Meegan, C. Sansone, Planning to Prevent Everyday Problems From Occurring. Part IV: Motivational and Personality Influences on Planning. E.A. Locke, C.C. Durham, J.M.L. Poon, E. Weldon, Goal Setting, Planning, and Performance on Work Tasks for Individuals and Groups. E.A. Skinner, Planning and Perceived Control. L.G. Aspinwall, Where Planning Meets Coping: Proactive Coping and the Detection and Management of Potential Stressors. N.E. Adler, P.J. Moore, J.M. Tschann, Planning Skills in Adolescence: The Case of Contraceptive Use and Non-Use. Part V: Social Influences on Planning. J.J. Goodnow, The Interpersonal and Social Aspects of Planning.