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Inside the Social Studies Classroom

By Jere Brophy, Janet Alleman, Barbara Knighton

Routledge – 2008 – 12 pages

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    978-0-8058-5572-2
    July 21st 2008
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    978-0-8058-5571-5
    July 21st 2008

Description

EDUCATION/ SOCIAL STUDIES

"… a much-needed addition to elementary social studies that will move the field ahead."

Keith C. Barton, University of Cincinnati

"This text fills a valuable niche and should quickly become a leading reference for teachers and teacher educators."

Linda S. Levstik, University of Kentucky

This book, resulting from a collaboration among an educational psychologist, a social studies educator, and a primary teacher, describes in rich detail and illustrates with excerpts from recorded lessons how primary teachers can engage their students in social studies lessons and activities that are structured around powerful ideas and have applications to their lives outside of school. The teaching portrayed connects concepts and skills emphasized in national and state standards, taught in ways that build on students’ prior experiences in their local communities and connect with their family backgrounds and home cultures.

The analyses include rich descriptions of the teacher-student interactions that occur during lessons, detailed information about how and why the teacher adapted lesson plans to meet her students’ background experiences and adjusted these plans to take advantage of teachable moments that emerged during lessons, and what all of this might imply concerning principles of practice. The principles are widely applicable in elementary schools across the country, as well as across the curriculum (not just in social studies) and across the elementary grades (not just the primary grades).

Reviews

"… a much-needed addition to elementary social studies that will move the field ahead."-- Keith C. Barton, University of Cincinnati

"This text fills a valuable niche and should quickly become a leading reference for teachers and teacher educators." -- Linda S. Levstik, University of Kentucky

"Brophy, Alleman and Knighton have successfully described a very thoughtful, deliberate, and painstaking research process that spanned several years. This is a volume from which any teacher or prospective teacher of social studies could profit immensely." -- Jane C. Chauvin, Teachers College Record (March 12, 2009)

"Inside the Social Studies Classroom successfully transitions theory into practice. The deep, rich classroom descriptions and extensive synthesis of purposeful instruction move learning beyond traditional practices, expanding our thinking about authentic and powerful primary social studies teaching."-- Tina L. Heafner, Theory & Research in Social Education (Spring 2009): 273-280

Contents

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Need for Improving Primary Social Studies

Our Partnership

Searching for a Feasible Method

Barbara Joins the Team

Negotiating Understandings and Inducing Principles

Focus of the Book

CHAPTER 2. PRIOR RESEARCH ON PRIMARY SOCIAL STUDIES

The Need for a Powerful Content Base In Early Social Studies

The Expanding Communities Sequence

Cultural Universals as Unit Topics

Teaching Cultural Universals for Understanding, Appreciation, and Life Application

Topical Organization of Curriculum

Teaching for Conceptual Change

Addressing Prior Knowledge and Misconceptions

NCSS Standards

Other Research

CHAPTER 3. GENERIC ASPECTS OF OUR INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS

Our Approach Compared to Alternatives

Developing the Unit Plans

Sequencing the Lessons

Pilot Testing and Revisions

Key Characteristics of the Units

Example Unit Outline: Shelter

Incorporating the Units Within the Larger Curriculum

CHAPTER 4 USING NARRATIVE TO BUILD A CONTENT BASE

The Special Challenges of Teaching Young Children

Narrative Structures as Teaching Tools

Barbara’s Use of Narrative

Clothing in the Past

The Story of Bananas

Concluding Observations

CHAPTER 5 STRUCTURING THE CURRICULUM AROUND BIG IDEAS

Focus on Powerful Ideas

Three Layers of Powerful Ideas for Teaching

Barbara’s Focus on Big Ideas

Maintaining Focus on Big Ideas without Getting Sidetracked

Techniques for Focusing Students’ Attention on Big Ideas

Cultural Universals

Food

Clothing

Transportation

Communication

CHAPTER 6 DEVELOPING BIG IDEAS ABOUT HISTORY

Teaching History for Understanding, Appreciation, and Life Application

Barbara’s History Teaching

Countering Presentism

Co-constructing Timelines

An Example

Adapting Timelines to the Content

CHAPTER 7 DEVELOPING BIG IDEAS: GEOGRAPHY

The Five Fundamental Themes of Geography

NCSS Standards Relating to Geography

Teaching Geography for Understanding, Appreciation, and Life Application

Barbara’s Geography Teaching

A Map Lesson

Incorporating Geographic Context Into Other Lessons

CHAPTER 8 DEVELOPING BIG IDEAS: THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

Anthropology (Cultural Studies)

Barbara’s Teaching About Culture

Economic Development

Cultural Differences

Economics

Barbara’s Teaching About Economics

Political Science (Civics and Government)

Barbara’s Teaching About Civics and Government

CHAPTER 9: USING INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES

Teaching with Visuals

Books

Photos and Illustrations

Video and Other Technology

Constructed Learning Resources

Charts

Lists

An Example

Word Webs

Graphs

Barbara’s Nine Principles

CHAPTER 10 MAKING CONNECTIONS AND AVOIDING UNDESIRED CONTENT

Making Connections

Foreshadowing

Tie-backs

Integrating Across Subjects

Controlling Students’ Exposure to Anomalies and Misconceptions

Anomalies

Misconceptions

Controlling Students’ Exposure to Undesired Content

Economic Disparities

Taboo Topics

Negative Emotions

Magic Words

Developing Big Ideas

CHAPTER 11 INTRODUCING NEW KNOWLEDGE BASES

Adapting and Elaborating Lesson Plans

Choosing Physical Settings

Choosing Instructional Resources

Developing Skills

Starting by Eliciting Wonders

Establishing the Initial Knowledge Base

Starting with the Prototypical

Building on Prior Knowledge

An Example

Alternative Topic Introductions

Building on Previous Lessons

Starting with a Question

Addressing Strong Interests First

Purposeful Sets of Examples

Introducing and Controlling Vocabulary

Deciding Which Terms and Distinctions to Teach

Tailoring Definitions to Instructional Goals

Enriching Understandings

Planned Redundancy

Other Vocabulary Teaching Techniques

Dropping in Definitions and Explanations on the Fly

CHAPTER 12 DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE BASES THROUGH STRUCTURED DISCOURSE

Supporting Learning Through Focused Content and Planned Redundancy

Sustaining Lesson Flow via Elaborations

Graduated Questioning

Scaffolding Learning and Retention

Establishing Prototype Images to Anchor Networks of Content

Reviewing Earlier Lessons to Set Up Today’s Lesson

Reviewing to Consolidate Before Moving Forward

Modeling of Interior Dialogue

Scaffolding Students’ Thinking and Information Processing

From Transmission to Construction: A Gradual Shift

Shifting From Presenting to Eliciting Information

Reverting from Eliciting to Presenting

Opening to Student Questions and Comments

CHAPTER 13 USING QUESTIONS TO DEVELOP CONTENT WITH

THE WHOLE CLASS

Timing and Frequency of Questions

Types and Functions of Questions

Socializing Students’ Attention and Participation

Calling for Choral Responses

Protecting Individuals’ Response Opportunities

Juggling Whole-Class and Individual-Student Agendas

Maintaining the Flow During Questioning Segments

Increasing the Probability of Desired Responses

Embedding Scaffolding Within Questions

Maintaining the Flow When Questions Do Not Elicit Desired Responses

Undesired but Usable Responses

Inability to Respond Correctly

Responding to Answers that Are Correct But Undesired in the Context

Responding to Unexpected Problems During Questioning Sequences

Summary: Maintaining the Flow

Interruption and Shifts in Anticipated Lesson Flow

Adapting Scaffolding Routines to Students and Situations

CHAPTER 14 SCAFFOLDING FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS WITHIN WHOLE-CLASS LESSONS

Scaffolding to Elicit Improved Responses

Students’ Questions and Comments

Teachable Moments

Responding to Unhelpful Student Questions and Comments

When Barbara Has to Stop and Regroup

CHAPTER 15 ACTIVITIES AND ASSESSMENTS

Barbara’s Use and Adaptation of Suggested Activities

Pair-Share Activities

Other Review Activities

Ticket-Out Activities

Writing Activities

Other Common Activities

Less Frequent Activities

Home Assignments

Assessment

Barbara’s Approach to Assessment

Formal and Informal Assessment

Conclusion

Author Bio

Jere Brophy is University Distinguished Professor of Teacher Education and Educational Psychology, Michigan State University

Janet Alleman is Professor of Teacher Education, Michigan State University

Barbara Knighton is an Early Elementary Educator, Waverly Community Schools, Michigan

Name: Inside the Social Studies Classroom (Paperback)Routledge 
Description: By Jere Brophy, Janet Alleman, Barbara Knighton. EDUCATION/ SOCIAL STUDIES "… a much-needed addition to elementary social studies that will move the field ahead." Keith C. Barton, University of Cincinnati "This text fills a valuable niche and should quickly become a leading...
Categories: Classroom Practice, Curriculum Studies, Teaching & Learning