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Ultrasonics

Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, Third Edition

By Dale Ensminger, Leonard J. Bond

CRC Press – 2011 – 765 pages

Series: Mechanical Engineering

Purchasing Options:

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    978-0-8247-5889-9
    September 19th 2011

Description

Recent advances in power electronics greatly benefit the multidisciplinary field of modern ultrasonics. More powerful, compact, and versatile electronic chips and software enable new computer-based devices for real-time data capture, storage, analysis, and display and advance the science and technology employed in commercial systems and applications of ultrasound. Reviewing the scientific basis behind these improvements, Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, Third Edition discusses them in detail, with new and additional figures and references, offering a completely revised and expanded examination of the state of modern ultrasonics.

This new edition of a bestselling industry reference discusses the full breadth of ultrasonics applications for industrial and medical use and provides the fundamentals and insights gathered over the authors’ collective 80 years in the field. It provides a unique and comprehensive treatment of the science and technology behind the latest advancements and applications in both low and high power implementations. Coverage combines fundamental physics, a review and analysis of sensors and transducers, and the systems required for the full spectrum of industrial, nondestructive testing and medical and biomedical uses. It includes citations of numerous references and covers both main stream and the more unusual and obscure applications of ultrasound.

Ultrasonics is ubiquitous in its industrial applications for sensing, NDT, and process measurements, in high power forms for processing and sonochemistry, as well as in medical procedures where it is used for diagnosis, therapy and surgery. This book provides a complete overview of the field, presenting numerous applications, cutting-edge advancements and improvements, additional figures and references, and a look at future directions.

Contents

Ultrasonics: A Broad Field

Introduction

Brief Early History

Underwater Sound (SONAR)

Medical and Biological Ultrasonics

Industrial Ultrasonics

Nondestructive Testing/Evaluation

Ultrasonics in Electronics

Physical Acoustics

Ultrasonic Systems: Transmitters and Receivers

Low-Intensity Applications

High-Intensity Applications

Modern Ultrasonics: An Interdisciplinary Field

References

Elastic Wave Propagation and Associated Phenomena

Introduction

Power Delivered to an Oscillating System

The Velocity of Sound

Impingement of an Ultrasonic Wave on a Boundary between Two Media

Transmission Through Thin Plates

Diffraction

Standing Waves

Doppler Effect

Superposition of Waves

Attenuation of an Ultrasonic Wave

Relaxation

High-Power Phenomena

References

Fundamental Equations Employed in Ultrasonic Design and Applications

Introduction

Simple Spring–Mass Oscillator

Wave Equations

Solution of the Plane-Wave Equation, Linear System

The Transverse-Wave Equation

Solution of the Transverse-Wave Equation

Plate Waves

References

Design of Ultrasonic Horns for High Power Applications

Introduction

The Horn Equations

Types of Horns

Combining Sections of Different Configurations for Practical Applications

Effect of Damping on the Operation of Horns

Wide Horns and Horns of Large Cross Section

Advanced Horn and System Design

References

Basic Design of Ultrasonic Transducers

Introduction

Equivalent Circuits

Piezoelectric Transducers

Magnetostrictive Transducers

Electromagnetic Devices

Pneumatic Devices (Whistles)

Mechanical Devices

Some Special High-Frequency Transducers

Transducer Generated Wave-Fields

General Remarks

References

Determining Properties of Materials

Introduction

Approximate Methods for Measurement of Velocity and Attenuation

Methods of Measuring Velocity of Sound

Low-Frequency Measurements of Elastic Moduli and Poisson’s Ratio

Density, Viscosity and Particle Size Measurements

Determining Properties of Plastics and High Polymers

General Comments on Measuring Acoustical Properties of Materials

References

Nondestructive Testing: Basic Methods and General Considerations

Introduction

Basic Methods

Factors Affectinc Resolution and Sensitivity

Unconventional Techniques Used for Nondestructive Testing

Instrumentation

References

Use of Ultrasonics in the Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Metals

Introduction

Internal Structure of Metals

Inspection of Basic Structures and Products

Inspection of Hot Metals

Determination of Bond Integrity

Thickness Measurements

Inspection of Solder Joints

References

Use of Ultrasonics in the Inspection and Characterization of Nonmetals

Introduction

Concrete

Ceramics and Ceramic Coatings

Timber, Wood, and Wood Composites

Paper

Leather

Plastics, Polymers, and Composites

Adhesive Bond Integrity

References

Imaging, Process Control, and Miscellaneous Low-Intensity Applications

Introduction

Ultrasonic Imaging

Process Monitoring, Measurement, and Control

Underwater Applications

SAW Sensors and Delay Lines

Application in Gases

References

Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics: Basic Mechanisms and Effects

Introduction

General Discussion

Mechanical Effects

Chemical Effects: Sonochemistry

Metallurgical Effects

References

Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics Based on Mechanical Effects

Introduction

Cleaning

Machining, Forming, and Joining

Liquid Atomization and Droplet Formation

Agglomeration and Flocculation

Drying and Dewatering

Agricultural Applications

Pest Control

Control of Foams

Coating Materials and Particles

Preparation of Carbon Spheres

Glassware Testing

Dispersions and De-Agglomeration

References

Applications of Ultrasonics Based on Chemical Effects—Sonochemistry

Introduction

Sonochemistry

Industrial Processes

Miscellaneous Chemical Effects and Applications

Electrolysis and Electroplating

Preparation of Nanomaterials

References

Medical Applications of Ultrasonic Energy

Introduction

Power Measurements and Dosages

Basic Mechanisms and Principles

Diagnosis

Therapy

Surgery

Tissue Characterization

High-Frequency Imaging/Acoustic Microscopy

Ancillary Application of Biomedical and Research Applications

References

Glossary

Appendix A

Appendix B

Index

Name: Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications, Third Edition (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Dale Ensminger, Leonard J. Bond. Recent advances in power electronics greatly benefit the multidisciplinary field of modern ultrasonics. More powerful, compact, and versatile electronic chips and software enable new computer-based devices for real-time data capture, storage, analysis,...
Categories: Materials Science, Medical Physics, Instrumentation, Measurement & Testing, Mathematical Physics, Applied Mathematics, Engineering & Technology