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Joint Cognitive Systems

Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering

By Erik Hollnagel, David D. Woods

CRC Press – 2005 – 240 pages

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  • Add to CartHardback: $129.95
    978-0-8493-2821-3
    February 27th 2005

Description

Nothing has been more prolific over the past century than human/machine interaction. Automobiles, telephones, computers, manufacturing machines, robots, office equipment, machines large and small; all affect the very essence of our daily lives. However, this interaction has not always been efficient or easy and has at times turned fairly hazardous. Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) seeks to improve this situation by the careful study of human/machine interaction as the meaningful behavior of a unified system.

Written by pioneers in the development of CSE, Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering offers a principled approach to studying human work with complex technology. The authors use a top-down, functional approach and emphasize a proactive (coping) perspective on work that overcomes the limitations of the structural human information processing view. They describe a conceptual framework for analysis with concrete theories and methods for joint system modeling that can be applied across the spectrum of single human/machine systems, social/technical systems, and whole organizations. The book explores both current and potential applications of CSE illustrated by examples.

Understanding the complexities and functions of the human/machine interaction is critical to designing safe, highly functional, and efficient technological systems. This is a critical reference for students, designers, and engineers in a wide variety of disciplines.

Reviews

"This book was written by pioneers in the field and offers a principled approach to studying human work with complex technology. … It seems destined to become a classic in the field."

- Books-on-Line

"In the nine compact chapters of Joint Cognitive Systems (JCS), two recognized figures in the field of human factors provide an understandable overview of cognitive systems engineering (CSE) and joint cognitive systems. …Fascinating topics are well explained for readers of any level of expertise."

-HCI International News, Jan. 2006, No. 14

". . . present an effective joint cognitive systems paradigm, make compelling arguments, and recommend a substantial advance for our field."

– Doug Griffith, in Ergonomics in Design, Spring 2007

Contents

PREFACE

THE DRIVING FORCES

Introduction

On Terminology

Computerization and Growing Complexity

Self-Reinforcing Complexity Cycle

Complexity and Unpredictability

Conspicuousness of the Human Factor

The Constraining Paradigm

Input-Output Models

The Shannon-Weaver Model Communication Model

Prototypical Information Processing

From Human-Machine Interaction to Joint Systems

The Cognitive Viewpoint

The Classical Human-Machine View

The Disintegrated View

Changing the Paradigm

Definition of a Cognitive System

The Scope of CSE

THE EVOLUTION OF WORK

Technological Systems as Amplification

`Examples of Amplification

Amplification of Control

Effects of Amplification

Amplification and Interpretation

Tools and Prostheses

A Short History of Human-Machine Interaction

The Conspicuousness of Cognition

Changing Balance Between Doing and Thinking

Loss of Work-Specific Information

The Law of Requisite Variety

Models of the Human as Controller

The Joint Cognitive System (JCS)

Control and Cognition

Disjoint and Joint Systems

Amplifying the Ability to Control

THE BASICS OF A SCIENCE

Model-Classification-Method

Requirements to Measurements

Theory-Driven Measurements

Theory-Begging Measurements

The Meaning of Measurements

The Elusiveness of Cognition

Cognition in the Mind

Cognition in the Wild

The Focus of CSE

Cognition and Context

Cognition and Control

Modeling Cognition and Context

Sequentiality in Reality and in Models

The Threads of CSE

Coping With Complexity

Use of Artifacts

Joint Cognitive Systems

Merging the Threads

COPING WITH COMPLEXITY

Introduction

About Coping

Sources of Complexity

Losing Control

Lack of Time

Lack of Knowledge

Lack of Readiness or Preparedness (Competence)

Lack of Resources

Coping Strategies

Information Input Overload

Information Input Underload

Designing for Simplicity

Simplicity-Complexity Trade-Off

Information Structuring

How Should the Interaction Be Designed?

Designing for Complexity

Support for Coping

Time

Predictability

Summary

USE OF ARTIFACTS

Introduction

Phenomenology of Coagency

Tools and Prostheses

Artifacts in CSE

Range of Artifacts

Cognitive Artifacts

The Substitution Myth

Consequences of Technology Change

Traffic Safety

Typical User Responses to New Artifacts

Failure Modes of an Artefact

The Accidental User

User Models and Accidental Users

JOINT COGNITIVE SYSTEMS

Introduction

On the Nature of System Boundaries

Automation and Joint Cognitive Systems

Degrees of Human-Machine Dependency

Automation Philosophies

Ironies of Automation

Lesons of Automation

Function Analysis and Goal Achievement

Goals and Means

Simple Test-Operate-Test-Exit (TOTE)

Recursive Goals-Means Descriptions

CONTROL AND COGNITION

Introduction

Feedback and Control

Feedforward and Control

The Substance of Modeling Cognition

Cognition Without Context

Cognition in Context

Mental Models and the Law of Requisite Variety

COCOM-Contextual Control Model

Model Constituents

Control Modes

ECOM-Extended Control Model

Tracking

Regulating

Monitoring

Targeting

ECOM Structure and Parameters

Interaction Between Loops

Modeling the Loss of Control

TIME AND CONTROL

Orthodoxy in Modeling

Model Minimization

Two Neglected Issues

Modeling Control

Predictability

Available Time

The Modeling of Time

Representation of Time in COCOM

Time and Control Modes

How to Enhance Control

Technological and Organizational Solutions

Human Solutions

Conclusions

CSE AND ITS APPLICATIONS

What Should CSE Be About?

Extensions to Human Factors/Ergonomics

Design of Work (Cognitive Task Design)

Making Work Easy

Making Work Safe

Problems in the Design of Work

Control Rooms

Adaptation

Decision Support

The Last Words

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AUTHOR INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

Name: Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Engineering (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Erik Hollnagel, David D. Woods. Nothing has been more prolific over the past century than human/machine interaction. Automobiles, telephones, computers, manufacturing machines, robots, office equipment, machines large and small; all affect the very essence of our daily lives. However,...
Categories: Cognitive Ergonomics, Computer Engineering, Industrial Engineering & Manufacturing