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Joint Cognitive Systems

Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering

By David D. Woods, Erik Hollnagel

CRC Press – 2006 – 232 pages

Purchasing Options:

  • Add to CartHardback: $129.95
    978-0-8493-3933-2
    March 26th 2006

Description

Our fascination with new technologies is based on the assumption that more powerful automation will overcome human limitations and make our systems 'faster, better, cheaper,' resulting in simple, easy tasks for people. But how does new technology and more powerful automation change our work?

Research in Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) looks at the intersection of people, technology, and work. What it has found is not stories of simplification through more automation, but stories of complexity and adaptation. When work changed through new technology, practitioners had to cope with new complexities and tighter constraints. They adapted their strategies and the artifacts to work around difficulties and accomplish their goals as responsible agents. The surprise was that new powers had transformed work, creating new roles, new decisions, and new vulnerabilities. Ironically, more autonomous machines have created the requirement for more sophisticated forms of coordination across people, and across people and machines, to adapt to new demands and pressures.

This book synthesizes these emergent Patterns though stories about coordination and mis-coordination, resilience and brittleness, affordance and clumsiness in a variety of settings, from a hospital intensive care unit, to a nuclear power control room, to a space shuttle control center. The stories reveal how new demands make work difficult, how people at work adapt but get trapped by complexity, and how people at a distance from work oversimplify their perceptions of the complexities, squeezing practitioners. The authors explore how CSE observes at the intersection of people, technology, and work, how CSE abstracts patterns behind the surface details and wide variations, and how CSE discovers promising new directions to help people cope with complexities. The stories of CSE show that one key to well-adapted work is the ability to be prepared to be surprised. Are you ready?

Reviews

". . . present an effective joint cognitive systems paradigm, make compelling arguments, and recommend a substantial advance for our field."

– Doug Griffith, in Ergonomics in Design, Spring 2007

Contents

Preface

CORE ACTIVITIES AND VALUES

Adaptability versus Limits

Complementarity

Core Values of CSE in Practice

On Systems in CSE

Patterns

Discovering Patterns in Joint Cognitive Systems at Work

A JCS at Work:

JOINT COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ADAPT TO COPE WITH COMPLEXITY

Adaptation in Joint Cognitive Systems at work

BEING BUMPABLE

The Story: A Delay

The Intensive Care Unit the Scene, the Cast, and BackDrop

Coping with Complexity: Parceling out beds by the Bedmeister

Artifacts as Tools: The Bed Book

Preparing for Demand > Supply Situations

Son of coping: Building an ICU from Scratch

Piling Pelion on Ossa: Escalating Demands

Observations on the Incident

DISCOVERY AS FUNCTIONAL SYNTHESIS

'Being Bumpable' as An Example of Studying a JCS at work

Insight and Functional Synthesis

SHAPING THE CONDITIONS OF OBSERVATION

Three Families of Methods

Converging Operations

The Psychologist's Fallacy

FUNCTIONAL SYNTHESES, LAWS, AND DESIGN

Properties of Functional Syntheses

On Laws that Govern Joint cognitive Systems at Work

Challenges To Inform Design

Patterns in How Joint Cognitive Systems Work

ARCHETYPICAL STORIES OF JOINT COGNITIVE SYSTEMS AT WORK

Demands and Adaptation

Affordances

Coordination

Resilience

Story Archetypes in 'Being Bumpable'

ANOMALY RESPONSE

Control Centers in Action

Cascading Effects

Interventions

Revision

Fixation

Generating Hypotheses

Recognizing Anomalies

The Puzzle of Expectancies

Control of Attention

Alarms and Directed Attention

Updating Common Ground When a Team Member Returns

Updating a Shared Frame of Reference

Patterns in Anomaly Response

PATTERNS IN MULTI-THREADED WORK

Managing Multiple Threads in Time

Tempo

Escalation

Coupling

Premature Narrowing

Reframing

Dilemmas

Over-Simplifications

AUTOMATION SURPRISES

The Substitution Myth

Surprises about Automation

Brittleness

Managing Workload in Time

Tailoring

Failure of Machine Explanation

Why is technology so Often Clumsy?

Making Automation a Team Player

A Coordination Breakdown in Response to a Disrupting Event

ON PEOPLE AND COMPUTERS IN JCSS AT WORK

Envisioning The Impact of New Technology

Responsibility in Joint Cognitive Sytems at Work

Problem-Holders

Goal Conflicts

Adapting to Double Binds

Literal-Minded Agents

Norbert's Contrast

Directions for Designing Joint Cognitive Systems that Include Robotic Platforms

Reverberations of New Robotic Technologies

LAWS THAT GOVERN JCSS AT WORK

A Tactic to Reduce the Mis-Engineering of Joint Cognitive Systems

Five Families of First Principles or Laws

Laws That Govern Joint Cognitive Systems at work

Generic Requirements to Design Joint Cognitive Systems that Work

Design Responsibility

Patterns and Stories

Bibliography

Appendix A

Appendix B

Author Index

Subject Index

Name: Joint Cognitive Systems: Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By David D. Woods, Erik Hollnagel. Our fascination with new technologies is based on the assumption that more powerful automation will overcome human limitations and make our systems 'faster, better, cheaper,' resulting in simple, easy tasks for people. But how does new...
Categories: Cognitive Ergonomics, Computer Engineering, Industrial Engineering & Manufacturing