Liming Acidic Surface Waters
By Harvey Olem
CRC Press – 1990 – 384 pages
An encyclopedic work!
This comprehensive volume is an impressive integration of European and North American research, providing the most complete information to date regarding the problems and solutions associated with aquatic liming. The book gives readers a thorough understanding of the complexities of liming by providing detailed information on design, use, and effects of liming systems for acidic surface waters. It also includes a complete and objective review of liming successes and failures, providing additional information to help readers determine how well a particular method will restore and protect the affected biota. This book is essential for anyone interested in the restoration of acidic lakes and streams.
Preface. Abstract. Figures. Tables. Definitions. Abbreviations. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes Mentioned in this Report. Acknowledgments. INTRODUCTION. THE NEED FOR MITIGATION. MITIGATION: SOURCE AND RECEPTOR. OBJECTIVES. BACKGROUND. Aquatic Liming Practices Initiated Before 1970. Aquatic Liming Practices Used After 1970. MITIGATION STRATEGIES. INTRODUCTION. TYPES OF RECEPTORS AND TREATMENTS. Lentic Systems. Lotic Systems. Watersheds. Combination Treatments. LIMING TECHNIQUES FOR MITIGATION. Neutralizing Agents. Chemical Reactions Involved in Neutralization. Selection Considerations for Limestone Materials. Application Techniques. Timing and Location of Liming. Methods for Determining Dosage and Reacidification Rates. Costs of Liming Techniques. OTHER TECHNIQUES FOR MITIGATION. Nutrient Addition. Stocking Acid Tolerant or Resistant Fish Species. Pumping of Alkaline Water. EFFECTS OF LIMING ON WATER CHEMISTRY AND BIOTA. INTRODUCTION. RESULTS OF MAJOR MITIGATION PROGRAMS. EFFECTS ON WATER CHEMISTRY. Physicochemical Effects on Lake Water Column. Lake Sediment Responses. EFFECTS ON BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND BIOTA. Biological Processes. Plankton. Macrophytes. Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Fish. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES. CANDIDATE SYSTEMS. Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Surface Waters for Mitigation. Treatment Strategies Adopted for Major Mitigation Programs. Target Water Quality. Estimates of Systems That May Benefit from Liming. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. INTRODUCTION. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. SYNTHESIS. REMAINING KNOWLEDGE GAPS AND RESEARCH NEEDS. MITIGATION STRATEGIES. EFFECTS OF LIMING ON WATER CHEMISTRY AND BIOTA. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. REFERENCES. APPENDIX A: SURFACE WATERS MENTIONED IN REPORT. APPENDIX B: COMPARISON OF LIMESTONE DOSES CALCULATIONS AND PREDICTION OF REACIDIFICATION RATES. APPENDIX C: RESULTS OF MAJOR MITIGATION PROJECTS IN THE UNITED STATES. APPENDIX D: RESULTS OF SELECTED MITIGATION PROJECTS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES.