Japanese Women in Science and Engineering
History and Policy Change
Routledge – 2016 – 176 pages
The gender gap in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) varies greatly from country to country, and the number of Japanese women in these fields remains relatively few. This prompts us to ask why the proportion of female scientists in Japan is still remarkably low and what measures the government, universities and research institutes are taking to address this issue.
This book sheds light on historical developments and the current gender equality situation in Japan, through the lens of women in STEM. It shows how a policy of gender equality in science and engineering has been introduced through the coordinated efforts of academia, scientific societies and the government, and how this has led to a slow but steady increase in female representation. The book draws on extensive interviews with government officials, scientists and educators in Japan to provide a revealing case study on how the underrepresentation of women in the fields of science, technology and engineering has been approached and dealt with by a national government. It heralds a new era for female scientists, by showcasing several programmes undertaken by government, universities and national research institutions to support multiple career paths for and the progression of female scientists in Japan.
Tracing the historical development of Japan’s policies towards women in science and education, this book will be welcomed by students and scholars interested in Japanese studies, comparative social policy, gender studies, employment and the history of science and technology.
Introduction 1. History of women's education in pre-WWII Japan 2. Policy changes from the post-WWII period up to the mid-1980's 3. From equal opportunities to equal participation: women's careers in science and engineering in the 1990s 4. Policy breakthrough by promoting equal participation of men and women in the late 1990s and 2000s 5. Policy impacts and voices of women in science and engineering: evaluation and survey results. Conclusion
Kashiko Kodate is Professor Emeritus at Japan Women's University in the Department of Mathematical and Physical Science, currently a specially-appointed Professor at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, and CEO of Photonic System Solutions Inc. (PSS). She was a former Director of Gender Equality Bureau at the Japan Science and Technology Agency.
Naonori Kodate is a Lecturer in Social Policy in University College Dublin, Ireland. His main research area is comparative social policy, particularly in health care. He has co-edited a book entitled Maternity Services and Policy in an International Context: Risk, Citizenship and Welfare Regimes (Routledge, 2015).