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U.S. Justice Department statistics indicate that only 26 percent of all rapes or attempted rapes are reported to law enforcement officials, and only slightly more than half of these result in the arrest of a suspect. Part of the problem lies in the public’s lack of faith in the criminal justice system’s ability to effectively deal with rape, victims, and the offenders.

Practical Aspects of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Fourth Edition presents several new research findings and forensic techniques which enable agencies to overcome past impediments to successful intervention and prosecution. This revision of the perennial bestseller adds several new chapters and expertly advances the state of knowledge for police, health professionals, rape crisis staffs, and other criminal justice professionals.

The book begins with a focus on the victim and reviews contemporary issues in the field of sexual violence, discusses the impact of sexual assault on the victim, and outlines victim care services. Then, from an investigative perspective, the book examines the relevance of fantasy, impulsive and ritualistic behavior, the personality of the offender, victim and offender interviews, geographic profiling, false allegations, and false confessions.

A discussion of forensics and the court includes topics on collection of evidence, medical examinations and treatment, and trial preparation issues. Lastly, the book examines special populations with sections on pedophiles, female and juvenile offenders, drug-facilitated rape, sexual sadism, abuse of the elderly, and the timely topic of educator misconduct.

This work was compiled by former FBI Agent Robert R. “Roy” Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess, Professor of Psychiatric Nursing at Boston College. The comprehensive text they have assembled is the definitive resource for those who must contend with the crimes of rape and other sexual assaults.

Contents

Section I: The Victim

Contemporary Issues, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Carol Harvey Marchetti

Introduction

The Size of the Problem

Incidence

Prevalence

Under-reported Crime

Relationship of Victim and Offender

Evidentiary Examination of the Victim

Crimes against the Elderly

Homicide

Elder Sexual Abuse in Nursing Homes

History of Psychological Trauma

The Psychobiology of Trauma

Memory

Developmental Traumatology: A Neurobiological Perspective

Substance Abuse

Date-Rape Drugs

Stalking

Cyberstalking

Youth Online Victimization

Collegiate Stalking and Cyberstalking

Adult Cyberstalking

Cyber Child Pornography

References

Rape and Its Impact on the Victim, Angela F. Amar and Ann Wolbert Burgess

Introduction

Rape Trauma Syndrome

Anxiety-Based Disorders

Depression

Substance Abuse

Psychosocial Adaptation

Childhood Sexual Abuse

Physical Health Effects of Rape

Pregnancy

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Perception of Health

Utilization of Health Services

General Health Effects

Genital Injury

Specific Populations

Global Perspectives

Overview of Culture and Its Relevance to Sexual Assault

Cultural Values and Sexual Assault

Research Related to Rape and Culture

Global Reports of Rape and Sexual Assault

Investigative Implications

References

Victim Services and SANE/SART Programs, Ann Wolbert Burgess, Annie Lewis-O’Connor, M. Elaine Nugent-Borakove, and Patricia Fanflik

Introduction

Rape Crisis Centers

Hospital-Based Victim Care Service: Early Services

Rape Crisis Services

The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)

The Evolution of SANE and SART

The Anti-rape Movement and the Development of Rape Crisis Centers

The “Second Assault”: Early Treatment of Rape Victims by the System

SANE/SART: Past and Present

Structure and Operation of SANE/SART Programs

Research on SANE/SART Programs

References

Section II: Investigation

The Relevance of Fantasy in Serial Sexual Crimes

Investigation, Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I Warren

Introduction

The Human Sex Drive

Sex Is a Sensory Act

The Paraphilias

Fantasy in Sexual Crimes

Inanimate Objects

Dolls

Photographs/Magazine Pictures

Clothing

Consenting Partners

Prostitutes

Girlfriends or Spouses as Partners

Self-Composition

Investigative Significance of Fantasy

Fantasy and Intelligence

Fantasy Is Always Perfect

Fantasy Enactment with Wives and/or Girlfriends

Fantasy and the Linking of Cases

Fantasy and Search Warrants

Fantasy and Prosecutive Strategy

Summary

References

The Sexually Violent Offender: Impulsive or Ritualistic,

Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I. Warren

Introduction

The Impulsive Sex Offender

Motivation

Fantasy

Personality Style

Collections/Pornography

Pre-offense Acting Out

Criminal Behavior

Past Criminal Behavior

Travel and Search Patterns

The Ritualistic Offender

Motivation

Personality Style

Fantasy

Relational

Paraphilic

Demographic

Situational

Self-perceptional

Pre-offense Acting Out

Criminal Behavior

Pornography

Criminal History

Summary

References

The Behavioral-Oriented Interview of Rape Victims: The Key to Profiling, Robert R. Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess

Introduction

Motivation

Profiling the Unidentified Rapist

Questioning for Behavior

Method of Approach

Con

Blitz

Surprise

Offender’s Control of the Victim

Mere Presence

Verbal Threats

Presence of a Weapon

Physical Force

Offender’s Use of Physical Force

Minimal

Moderate

Excessive

Brutal

Victim Resistance

Passive Resistance

Verbal Resistance

Physical Resistance

Offender’s Reaction to Resistance

Cease the Demand

Compromise or Negotiate

Flee

Threaten

Force

Sexual Dysfunctions

Erectile Insufficiency

Premature Ejaculation

Retarded Ejaculation

Conditional Insufficiency

Conditional Ejaculation

Type and Sequence of Sexual Acts

Verbal Activity

Forced Victim Verbal Activity

Sudden Change in Offender’s Attitude

Criminal Experience

Novice

Experienced

Items Taken

Evidentiary

Valuables

Personal

Indications That Victim Was Targeted

Summary

References

Analyzing the Rape and Profiling the Offender, Robert R. Hazelwood

Introduction

Selfish versus Pseudo-unselfish Behavior

Pseudo-unselfish Behavior

Verbal Behavior

Sexual Behavior

Physical Behavior

Selfish Behavior

Verbal Behavior

Sexual Behavior

Physical Behavior

Rapist Typologies

Power Reassurance Rapist

General

Purpose of Attack

Style of Attack

Power Assertive Rapist

General

Purpose of Attack

Style of Attack

Anger Retaliatory Rapist

General

Purpose of Attack

Style of Attack

Anger Excitation Rapist

General

Purpose of Attack

Style of Attack

Opportunistic Rapist

General

Purpose of Attack

Style of Attack

The Gang Rape

General

Purpose of Attack

Style of Attack

A Case Study

Criminal Investigative Analysis

Victimology

Low Risk

Moderate Risk

High Risk

Method of Approach

Method of Control

Amount of Force

Victim Resistance

Reaction to Resistance

Sexual Dysfunction

Type and Sequence of Sexual Acts

Offender Verbal Activity

Attitudinal Change

What Preceded the Attitudinal Change

Precautionary Actions

Items Taken

Purpose of the Assault

Offender Profiling

The Profile

Personality Characteristics

Race

Age

Arrest History

Marital Status

Residence

Education

Military History

Employment

Transportation

Appearance and Grooming

Summary

References

Interviewing the Rapist, Michael R. Napier

Introduction

Developing the Interview Plan

Traits of Successful Interviewers

Question Formulation

Tools of the Profession

Reading Minds

Planting Ideas

Theme Development

Test of Commitment

Offender-Specific Tactics

The Power Reassurance Rapist

The Power Assertive Rapist

The Anger Retaliatory Rapist

The Anger Excitation Rapist

References

Bibliography

Geographic Profiling in Serial Rape Investigations, D. Kim Rossmo

Introduction

Criminal Investigative Process

Linkage Analysis

Physical Evidence

Offender Description

Crime Scene Behavior

Stranger and Serial Rape

Geography of Rape

Geographic Profiling

Geographic Profiling Considerations

Criminal Hunting Methods

Crime Locations

Questions

The Rigel Software System

Investigative Strategies and Tactics

Suspect Prioritization

Police Information Systems

Task Force Management

Sex Offender Registries

Government and Business Databases

Motor Vehicle Registrations

Bloodings

Peak-of-Tension Polygraphy

Conclusion

References

Linkage Analysis: M.O., Ritual, and Signature in Serial Sexual Crimes, Robert R. Hazelwood and Janet I. Warren

Introduction

Modus Operandi

Ritualistic Behaviors in Sexual Crimes

Observations Regarding M.O. and Ritual

The Signature in Sexual Crimes

A Case Example

The Linkage Analysis

The Analysis in the Sanchez and Johnson Cases

The Motive

The Modus Operandi (M.O.)

The Ritual

The Signature

Dissimilar Features of the Crimes

Features Other Than M.O. or Ritual

Conclusions

References

False Rape Allegations, Robert R. Hazelwood and Ann Wolbert Burgess

Introduction

Definition

Potential Consequences of a False Allegation

Imprisonment of an Innocent Person

Impact on Legitimate Victims of Rape

Emotional Problems in Need of Attention

Problems Confronting the Investigator

Classification of Unfounded Rape Cases

Sex-Stress Situations

False Rape Allegation

Delusional Rape Allegation

Who Makes a False Allegation?

Motives for False Rape Allegations

Attention/Sympathy

Anger/Revenge

Alibi

False Allegations and the Adaptation Continuum

Munchausen Syndrome

Mental States

Factors Consistent with False Allegations

Initial Complaint

Assailants

Sexual Assault

Evidence

Injuries

Personality and Lifestyle Considerations

Other

Second Opinion

Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Collateral Materials in Sexual Crimes, Robert R. Hazelwood and Kenneth V. Lanning

Introduction

Traditional Evidence in Sexual Crimes

Forensic Evidence

Circumstantial Evidence

Eyewitness Evidence

Direct Evidence

Collateral Materials

Types of Collateral Materials

Erotica

Educational

Introspective

Intelligence

Case Study

Summary

References

Interrogation and False Confessions in Rape Cases, Richard A. Leo

Introduction

Causes of False Confessions

The Police Interrogation

Step 1: Shifting the Suspect from Confident to Hopeless

Step 2: Offering the Suspect Inducements to Confess

The Different Types of False Confessions

Voluntary False Confession

Stress-Compliant False Confession

Coerced-Compliant False Confession

Coerced-Persuaded False Confession

Noncoerced-Persuaded False Confession

The Consequences of False Confessions

Conclusion

References

Section III: Forensics and Court

Physical Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigations, Robert P. Spalding and P. David Bigbee

Introduction

The Nature of Physical Evidence

The Identification of Evidence

General Types of Evidence

Class Characteristic Evidence

Individual Characteristic Evidence

Evidence Resulting from Transfer

Direct Transfer

Indirect Transfer

The Evidence Environment

Evidence/Crime Scene Contamination

The Nature of the Evidence Environment

The Personnel

Careless and/or Inadvertent Alteration at the Scene

The Packaging of Evidence

The Laboratory Environment

Degradation of Evidence

Considerations Relating to the Victim, Suspect, and Assault Scene

The Victim

The Suspect

Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits

Known Blood

Known Saliva

Head Hair Combing/Brushing

Pubic Hair Combing/Brushing

Combing/Brushing of Body Hair Regions Other Than Head and Pubic

Vaginal Swabs

Oral Swabs

Anal Swabs

Microscope Smear Slides Made from Swabs

Vaginal Aspirate

Oral Rinse (Wash)

Nasal Mucus Sample

Fingernail Scrapings

Clothing

Penile Swabs

Miscellaneous Debris Collection

Sheets/Body Bags

The Crime Scene

General Stages of Crime Scene Investigation

Approach the Scene

Secure and Protect the Scene

Conduct a Preliminary Survey

Evaluate Observed Evidence

Prepare a Narrative Description

Photograph the Scene

Sketch the Scene

Conduct a Detailed Search for Evidence

Collect, Preserve, and Document the Evidence

Conduct a Final Survey

Release the Scene

It Does Not End There

Blood-Borne Pathogens

Bloodstain Patterns

Summary

Evidence Recovery Considerations in Sexual Assault

Investigations, Robert P. Spalding and P. David Bigbee

Introduction

Recovery of Questioned Evidence

Hairs and Fibers

Search Methods and Techniques

General Unassisted Visual Search

Oblique Light

Ultraviolet Light

Vacuuming

Adhesive Lifts

Combing/Brushing

Fingernail Scrapings and Clippings

Lasers and Alternate Light Sources (ALSs)

Blood

Conventional Forensic Analysis

DNA Analysis

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCRs)

Newer Technologies

Recovery of Blood Evidence

Wet Blood

Dried Bloodstains

Control Samples

Representative Samples

Chemical Presumptive Tests

Chemical Agents

Chemical Enhancement of Blood Evidence

Bloodstain Pattern Evidence

Semen

Conventional Semen Serology

DNA in Semen

Semen Evidence Recovery

Sexual Assault Evidence at the Scene

Locating Semen at the Scene

DNA and UV Light

Post-event Alteration of Stains

Saliva

Saliva Recovery

Ash Tray Contents

Bite Marks

Recovery of Known Evidence

Known Hair Samples

How Many Hairs?

How Should They Be Collected?

Elimination Samples

Animals

Known Fiber Samples

Fiber Samples to Be Taken

Taking the Samples

Known Blood Samples

Known Saliva Samples

Marking of Evidence for Identification

Direct and Indirect Marking

What Should Be Marked on the Evidence?

Use of an Evidence Log

Chain of Custody

Materials Used to Package Physical Evidence

Small Evidence Items

Large Evidence Items

Summary

Acknowledgments

Additional Reading

Medical Examination of Sexually Abused Children, Andi Taroli

Primum Non Nocere

Multidisciplinary Investigations

The Pediatrician’s Role

The Scope of the Problem

“Children Are Not Little Adults”

The Medical History

The Patient’s History (Interview)

General Principles for Interviewing Children

Setting

Timing

Questions

Number of Interviews

Content

Past Medical History, Family and Social History, and System Review

The Physical Exam

Colposcopy

The Hymen—Myths and Truths

Examination Findings

Acute Injury

Chronic Exam Findings

Why Are Positive Physical Findings Uncommon?

“Penetration, However Slight”

Evidence for Absence of Physical Findings

The Written Report

Forensic Evidence Collection

Where the Evidence Is (and Where It Is Not)

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)

False Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Children

Sequelae

References

Resources

Injury and Forensic Examination of the Victim, Kathleen P. Brown and Marilyn S. Sommers

Introduction

Overview

Genital Injury Prevalence

Injury Prevalence with Visual Inspection

Injury Prevalence with Staining Techniques

Injury Prevalence with Colposcopy Technique

Location of Genital Injury

Comparison of Genital Injury Prevalence Following Consensual Sexual

Intercourse

Genital Injury Type

Role of Genital Injury in Criminal Justice Proceedings

The Forensic Examination

Team Approach to Forensic Services

Access to the Sexual Assault Response Team

Setting

Role of the Forensic Examiner

Forensic Interview in Health Care Settings

Interview Format

Consent Issues

History

Forensic Examination

Overall Appearance

Clothing

Detection of Injury

Collection of Forensic Evidence

Examination of Genitalia

Rectal Examination

Proper Handling (Management) of Evidence

Chain of Custody

Documentation

Drug and Alcohol Testing

Therapy and Prophylaxis

Follow-up Care

Discharge Instructions

Conclusion

References

Classifying Rape and Sexual Assault, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Robert R. Hazelwood

Introduction

Motivation for Rape: Early Research

The Rationale for Classification

Usefulness of Classification

Crime Classification Numbering System

300: Criminal Enterprise Rape

301: Felony Rape

310: Personal Cause

312: Domestic Sexual Assault

313.00: Entitlement Rape

314: Anger Rape

315: Sadistic Rape

319: Abduction Rape

330: Group Cause Sexual Assault

331: Formal Gang

332: Informal Gang

390: Sexual Assault Not Classified Elsewhere

Multiple Motives Underlying Sexual Assault

Rape: Its Impact on the Victim

Rape Is an Act of Aggression

Child Molesters

Summary

References

Prosecuting Rape Cases: Trial Preparation and Trial Tactic Issues, Teresa Scalzo

Introduction

Conducting an Offender-Focused Prosecution

Enhancing the Victim’s Credibility

Direct Examination

General Trial Strategies

Preparation

Witness Order

Pretrial Motions

Voir Dire

Opening Statement

Victim Cross-Examination

Expert Testimony Regarding Victim Behavior

Medical Testimony

DNA

Toxicologist and/or Pharmacologist

Cross-Examination of the Defendant

Closing Argument

Jury Instructions

Additional Trial Strategies

Summary

Section IV: Special Populations

Cyber “Pedophiles”: A Behavioral Perspective, Kenneth V. Lanning

Introduction

Overview

Illegal Sexual Activity

Legal Sexual Activity

Understanding Behavior

Paraphilias and Sexual Ritual Behavior

“Pedophiles” and Child Molesters

Typology

Computer Offenders

What about “Predators?”

Recognizing Preferential Sex Offenders

Exaggerated Example

“Concerned” Civilians

Female Offenders

Use of Computers

Organization

Communicate, Fuel, and Validate

Maintenance of Business or Financial Records

Child Pornography

Interaction with and Soliciting Sex with Children

Comments Concerning Prevention

Proactive Investigations

Staleness of Probable Cause

Summary

References

The Sexual Crimes of Juveniles, John A. Hunter

Introduction

Developmental Issues

Typology Research

Modus Operandi

Violent Juvenile Sex Offenders

Investigative Issues

Detection

Guidelines for Interviewing Juvenile Sex Offenders

Mental Health Evaluations

Disposition Decision-Making and Management

Effective Community Programming

Treatment Focuses

Treatment Outcomes

References

Patterns of Female Sexual Offending and Their

Investigatory Significance to Law Enforcement and Child

Protective Services, Janet I. Warren and Julia Hislop

Introduction

Historical Perspective

Empirical Typologies of Female Offenders

Motivational Typology of Female Sex Offenders

The Forbidden Lover: Secrets Are Seductive

The Facilitator: Engaging in the Sexual Fantasy of Another

The Instigator: Expressing Control and Dominance

The Psychotic: There Was a Demon in Her

Munchausen by Proxy: “But I Am Only Trying to Protect My Child!”

Contributory Factors in Female Sex Offending

Re-enactment and Early Trauma

Personality Disorders

Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorders

Investigatory Significance of the Paradigm

References

Bibliography

Drug-Facilitated Sex Assault, Michael Welner and Barbara Welner

Introduction

Tracing the History of DFSA

The DFSA Perpetrator

What Makes the DFSA Drug?

Modus Operandi

Components of the DFSA Modus Operandi

A Typology of DFSA

Settings

Accomplices and Conspiracies

Intrafamilial DFSA

Male-on-Male Offenses

Sexual Deviance or Sexual Hunters

What Distinguishes DFSA Offenders from Other Sexual Criminals?

What Makes a Sound Investigation?

References

Bibliography

The Criminal Sexual Sadist, Robert R. Hazelwood, Park Elliot Dietz, and Janet I. Warren

Introduction

What Is Sexual Sadism?

Physical and Psychological Suffering

Sexually Sadistic Behavior

Sadistic Fantasy

Sadism toward Symbols

Consenting or Paid Partners

Behavior Patterns Confused with Sexual Sadism

Sadistic Personality

Cruelty during Crime

Pathological Group Behavior

Sanctioned Cruelty

Revenge-Motivated Cruelty

Interrogative Cruelty

Postmortem Mutilation

Study Conducted

Offender Characteristics

Crime Characteristics

Evidence of Crime

Investigating Crimes of the Sexual Sadist

Sources

Search Warrants

Interviewing the Sexual Sadist

Summary

References

Sexual Sadists: Their Wives and Girlfriends, Robert R. Hazelwood

Introduction

Genesis of the Research

Methodology

The Women

Their Relationships with the Men

The Transformation of the Women

Selection of a Vulnerable Woman

Seduction of the Woman

Reshaping the Sexual Norms

Social Isolation

Punishment

Investigative Significance of the Research

Crime Behavior

The Criminal

Former Wives and Girlfriends

Summary

References

Elder Sexual Abuse Victims, Ann Wolbert Burgess and Leonard I. Morgenbesser

Introduction

Scope of the Problem

Literature on Elder Sexual Abuse

Barriers in Investigating Elder Sexual Abuse Cases

Intentional versus Unintentional Injury

Older Adult Victim Unable to Communicate

Signs and Symptoms of Abuse

Inadequate Evidentiary Examination

Resident-on-Resident Sexual Abuse

Early Recognition and Detection

Interviewing Elder Victims of Sexual Abuse

Forensic Services

Types of Interventions

Brief Therapy

Individual Counseling

Group Counseling

Music Therapy

Living Situations of Elderly Victims

Independent Living

Assisted Living

Nursing Home

Intervention for Family Members of Sexually Abused Elders

Prevention of Elder Sexual Abuse

Suggested Approaches to Elder Victims in Nursing Homes

Crisis Intervention

Nursing Home Staff

Sex Offenders of the Elderly, Ann Wolbert Burgess, Robert A. Prentky, and Mark Saffarik

Introduction

Background

Theories of Offending

Dynamics of the Offense

Victimology

Style of approach

Control of Victim

Victim Resistance

Multiple Assaults

Types of Sexual Acts

Classifying Sex Offenders of the Elderly

Typology and Examples

Opportunistic

Pervasive Anger

Sexualization

Nonsadistic Types

Vindictive Motivation

Discussion

Taxonomic Heterogeneity

Policy and Investigative Implications

Motive and Escalation in Serial Sexual Homicide

Investigative Profiling and Risk Assessment

Conclusion

References

Bibliography

Educator Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders, James Knoll

Introduction

Female Perpetrators

General Sex Offender Grooming Patterns

Educator Sexual Abuse Grooming Patterns

Effects of Educator Sexual Abuse

Dilemmas

Case Example and Discussion

Toward Prevention

Conclusions

References

Name: Practical Aspects of Rape Investigation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Fourth Edition (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: Edited by Robert R. Hazelwood, Ann Wolbert BurgessSeries Editor: Vernon J. GeberthContributors: Patricia L. Fanflik, Kathleen P. Brown, Richard Leo, D. Kim Rossmo, Mike Napier, Michael Welner, Andrea Taroli, Teresa P. Scalzo, James Knoll, P. David Bigbee, Kenneth V. Lanning, Janet I. Warren, Park E. Dietz, Julia Hislop, John A. Hunter, Robert A. Prentky, M. Elaine Nugent-Borakove, Marilyn Sommers, Leonard I. Morgenbesser, Barbara Welner, Carol Anne Marchetti, Angela F. Amar. U.S. Justice Department statistics indicate that only 26 percent of all rapes or attempted rapes are reported to law enforcement officials, and only slightly more than half of these result in the arrest of a suspect. Part of the problem lies in the...
Categories: Forensic Science, Psychiatry