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Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes

By Nayef Ghasem, Redhouane Henda

CRC Press – 2008 – 400 pages

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    978-1-42-008013-1
    September 19th 2008

Description

Written in a clear, concise style, Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes provides an introduction to the basic principles and calculation techniques that are fundamental to the field. The text focuses on problems in material and energy balances in relation to chemical reactors and introduces software that employs numerical methods to solve these problems.

Upon mastery of this material, readers will be able to:

  • Understand basic processing terminology (batch, semibatch, continuous, purge, and recycle) and standard operations (reaction, distillation, absorption, extraction, and filtration)
  • Draw and fully label a flowchart for a given process description
  • Choose a convenient basis for calculation for both single- and multiple-unit processes
  • Identify possible subsystems for which material and energy balances might be written
  • Perform a degree of freedom analysis for the overall system and each possible subsystem, formulating the appropriate material and energy balance equations
  • Apply the first law of thermodynamics, calculate energy and enthalpy changes, and construct energy balances on closed and open systems

Written as a text to fully meet the needs of advanced undergraduate students, it is also suitable as a reference for chemical engineers with its wide coverage across the biochemical and electromechanical fields. Each chapter of the text provides examples, case studies, and end-of-chapter problems, and the accompanying CD-ROM contains software designed for solving problems in chemical engineering.

Contents

Introduction

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Definition of Chemical Engineering

Material and Energy Balances

Values, Units, and Dimensions

Systems of Units

Unit Conversion

Time

Mass

Length

Volume

Density

Force

Pressure

Energy

Power

Weight

Dimensional Homogeneity

Significant Figures

Multiplication and Division

Addition and Subtraction

Process and Process Variables

Density, Mass, and Volume

Flow Rate

Moles and Molecular Weight

Mass Fraction and Mole Fraction

Concentration

Pressure

Types of Pressure

Manometers for Pressure and DP Measurement

Temperature Measurement

Converting Temperatures

Ideal Gas Law

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Process Classification

Problems

Process Classification

Types of Processes

Unit Conversion

Flowrate through Horizontal Pipe

Molar Flow Rate

Dimensional Homogeneity

Calculation of Mass for Specific Gravity and Volume

Convert of Equation to Other Units

Further Readings

Process Units and Degrees of Freedom Analysis

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Degree of Freedom Analysis

Possible Outcomes of the DFA

Sources of Equations

Process Units: Basic Functions

Divider=Splitter

Mixer (Blender)

Dryer (Direct Heating)

Filter

Distillation Column

Evaporator

Dehumidification

Humidifier

Leaching and Extraction

Absorption (Gas Absorption) Desorption

Partial Condenser

Flash Vaporizer and Flash Distillation

Crystallizer

Reactors (Chemical Reactor, Combustor, Furnace, and Reformer)

Batch Reactor

Plug Flow and Packed Bed Reactor

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor and Fluidized Bed Reactor

Summary of Degree of Freedom Analysis

Problems

Absorption of Acetone from Air

Separation of Liquid Mixture

Absorber–Stripper Process

Filtration Processes

Evaporation Processes

Further Readings

Material Balance in Single Unit Processes

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

General Material Balance Equation

Material Balance Simplifications

Flowcharts

Note on Notation

Problems Involving Material Balances on a Single Unit

Material Balance Fundamentals

Classification of Processes

Based on How the Process Varies with Time

Based on How the Process was Designed to Operate

Types of Balances

Stream Specifications

Scaling

Basis for Calculation

Basis for Calculation

Method for Solving Material Balance Problems

Material Balance on Bioprocesses

Problems

Separation of Ethanol–Methanol Process Stream

Wet Leather Drying Process

Separation of Ethanol–Methanol–Propanol Mixture

Ethanol–Water Separation

Mixing of Hydrochloric Acid with Water

Removal of Acetone from Nitrogen Using an Absorber

Separation of Benzene=Toluene Mixture

Dilution of Methanol Mixture

Humidification Chamber

Absorption of Water from a Gas Mixture

Drying of Wet Sugar

Further Readings

Multiple-Unit Process Calculations

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Multiple-Unit Process Calculations

Recycle, Bypass, Makeup, and Purge

Recycle

Bypass

Purge

Makeup

Problems

Separations of Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Mixtures

Filtration Processes

Concentration of Orange Juice

Separation of NaCl and KCl Mixture

Sulfur Removal System

Separation of DMF–Nitrogen Mixture

Separation of Benzene–Toluene Mixture

Separation of Potassium Nitrate

Production of Instant Coffee

Further Readings

Material Balances in Reactive Processes

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Amount of Substance in Moles

Why Use the Mole?

General Material Balance

Differential Balance

Integral Balance

Stoichiometry Basics

Stoichiometric Equation

Stoichiometric Coefficients (ni)

Stoichiometric Ratio

Limiting and Excess Reactants

Fractional Conversion

Methods of Solving Material Balances Involving Chemical Reactions

Extent of Reaction Method

Element or Atomic Balance Method

Molecular or Component Balance Approach

Multiple Reactions and Extent of Reaction

Degree of Freedom Analysis for Reactive Processes

Molecular Species Balances and Extent of Reaction

Atomic Species Balances

Independent Chemical Reactions

Independent Species Balances

Chemical Equilibrium

Combustion Reactions

Theoretical and Excess Air

Problems

Incomplete Combustion of Butane

Complete Combustion of Butane

Methane Combustion

Burning Ethyl Ketone with Excess Air

Roasting of Iron Pyrite

Water–Gas Shift Reaction

Production of Sulfuric Acid

Further Readings

Multiple Systems Involve Reaction, Recycle, and Purge

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Reaction with Product Separation and Recycle

Reaction with Recycle and Purge

Flowsheet for Reaction with Recycle

Flowsheet for Reaction with Recycle and Purge

Reaction and Multiple-Unit Steady-State Processes

Auxiliary Relationship

Problems

Chemical Reactor Analysis

Laundry Detergent Synthesis Process

Butanol Production

Hydrodealkylation Process

Uranium and Zirconium as Nuclear Fuels

Further Readings

Energy Balance without Reaction

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Enthalpy and Energy Balances

How Does Energy Move Across Systems?

Forms of Energy

Kinetic Energy (Ek)

Potential Energy (Ep)

Internal Energy (U)

Intensive versus Extensive Variables

Transfer of Energy

First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy Balances on Closed Systems

Possible Simplifications on Energy Balance in a Closed System

Energy Balances in Open Systems at Steady State

Possible Simplifications on Energy Balance in an Open System

Enthalpy Calculations

Reference States and State Properties

Use of Linear Interpolation in Steam Tables

Enthalpy Change in Nonreactive Processes

Enthalpy Change as a Result of Temperature Change

Enthalpy Change because of Phase Changes

Enthalpy Change because of Mixing

Energy Balance on Bioprocesses

Psychrometric Chart

Summary on Energy Balances without Reactions

Problems

Vaporization of Liquid Methanol

Heating of Propane

Expansion of Wet Steam

Open System Energy Balance (Heating of Methanol)

Open System Energy Balance (Heating of Liquid Methanol)

Vaporization of Liquid n-Hexane

Closed System Energy Balance (Heating of Acetone)

Open System Energy Balance (Power Output of Turbine)

Open System Energy Balance (Power Requirement of Compressor)

Further Readings

Energy Balances with Reaction

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Introduction

Heats of Reaction

Heats of Reaction Using the Extent of Reaction

Notes on Heats of Reaction

Reactions in Closed Processes

Measurement of Heats of Reaction

Hess’s Law

Calculating Heat of Reaction () from Heats of Formation

Calculating D Hr from Heats of Combustion

Energy Balances on Reactive Processes

Heat of Reaction Method

Heat of Formation Method: Process Path

General Procedure for Energy Balances with Reaction

Processes with Unknown Outlet Conditions

Energy Balances in Bioprocess

Problems

Estimation of Heat of Reaction

Production of Superheated Steam

Ammonia Synthesis Process

Catalytic Transalkylation of Toluene to Benzene

Combustion of Methane

Anaerobic Yeast Fermentation

Further Readings

Combined Material and Energy Balances

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Material Balances

Conversion

Yield

Selectivity

Extent of Reaction ()

Energy Balances

Heat of Reaction Method

Heat of Formation Method

Concept of Atomic Balances

Mathematical Formulation of the Atom Balance

Degree of Freedom Analysis for the Atom Balance

Implementing Recycle on the Separation Process

Problems

Mixing of Hot and Cold Ethanol

Combustion of Acetylene

Dehydrogenation of Ethanol

Independent Chemical Reaction

Cumene Synthesizes Process

Dehydrogenation of Propane

Further Readings

Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances

At the End of This Chapter You Should Be Able to

Unsteady-State Material Balance

Unsteady-State Energy Balance

Problems

Fluid Flow from Storage Tank

Boiling of Water

Heating Using Saturated Steam

Heating a Solvent in a Stirred Tank

Concentration of Reactant as a Function of Time

Further Readings

Appendix

Index

Name: Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Nayef Ghasem, Redhouane Henda. Written in a clear, concise style, Principles of Chemical Engineering Processes provides an introduction to the basic principles and calculation techniques that are fundamental to the field. The text focuses on problems in material and energy balances in...
Categories: Industrial Chemistry, Separation Processing