Security Governance, Policing, and Local Capacity
CRC Press – 2012 – 257 pages
The security governance of South Africa has faced immense challenges amid post-apartheid constitutional and political transformations. In many cases, policing and governmental organizations have failed to provide security and other services to the poorest inhabitants. Security Governance, Policing, and Local Capacity explores an experiment that took place in Zwelethemba—located in South Africa’s Western Cape Province—to establish legitimate and effective nonstate security governance within poor urban settlements.
There has been, and continues to be, much reticence to endorsing private forms of security governance that operate outside of state institutions within local communities. Those initiatives have often led to situations where force is used illegally and punishment is dispensed arbitrarily and brutally. This book explores the extent to which this model of mobilizing local knowledge and capacity was able to effectively achieve justice, democracy, accountability, and development in this region.
Whenever possible, the book includes raw data and a thorough analysis of existing information on security governance. Examining this case and its outcome, the authors provide a theoretical analysis of the model used and present a series of design principles for future applications in local security governance. The book concludes that poor communities are a significant source of untapped resources that can, under certain conditions, be mobilized to significantly enhance safety. This volume is an important examination of experimental models and a presentation of new groundbreaking theory on engaging the local community in solving security governance problems.
Good Security Governance
The Zwelethemba Road
A Road Block
Roads from Zwelethemba
The Road to This Book
Justice Through Peace
Justice as Just Deserts
Restorative Justice: Justice as Healing
Restorative Justice and the Criminal Justice System
Mechanisms for Building Justice Through Peace
Democracy in Many Places
The Displacement of Politics as a Democratic Requirement
Zwelethemba and the Displacement of Politics
Zwelethemba and the Challenge of Building Private Democratic Spaces
Disputes over Property
"Futures Games" Versus "Blaming Games"
Making Up and Resolving Disputes
Building Symbolic Capital
Increasing the Level of Transparency
Drawing Upon Community Norms and Values
Mobilizing Normative Standards
Aligning Local and Cosmopolitan Values
Reviews and Reflection on Practice
Accountability—Where We Have Been
A New Crisis of Accountability?
New Ideas on How to Perceive and Strengthen Accountability
The Zwelethemba Experience—Accountability Mechanisms and Challenges
Accountability Relations Between the Peace Committees and the Community Peace Program
Disrespecting the Framework
Accountability Relations to the South African State and Its Constitution
Accountability in Learning Processes
Accountability Through the Market
Human Rights in Development
No Development Without a Strong State
What Is a Strong State?
Development and Human Rights
Reconciling Universal Human Rights With Local Norms
Reconciling Tensions Within the Family of Human Rights
Building Individual Capacity
Reimagining Strategies of Collective Engagement
The McGregor Experiment
Zwelethemba—Mobilizing the Savages to Fight the Barbarians?
Conclusion: Zwelethemba’s Hope
A Road Block and Beyond?