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Hospital Airborne Infection Control

By Wladyslaw Kowalski

CRC Press – 2012 – 370 pages

Purchasing Options:

  • Add to CartHardback: $164.95
    978-1-43-982196-1
    December 7th 2011

Description

Although nosocomial, or hospital-acquired, infections have been well cataloged and are fairly well understood, traditional solutions have failed to completely eliminate the problem. Even the most modern hospitals find themselves stymied by the persistence of these pathogens in hospital wards and operating rooms. The degree to which most of these infections are airborne is not known, but a growing body of evidence indicates that airborne transmission plays a role in many hospital-acquired infections.

Addressing one of the most important topics in health care, Hospital Airborne Infection Control is the first book to deal with the control of airborne nosocomial infections in detail. It identifies all pathogens known or suspected to be airborne, along with their sources in hospital environments. It also summarizes all epidemiological evidence for airborne transmission. The text addresses respiratory, surgical site, burn wound, immunocompromised, pediatric, nursing home, and non-respiratory infections. In each category, an extensive number of examples show that inhalation is not the only airborne route by which infections may be transmitted.

Noting that airborne transmission and surface contamination are virtually inseparable, the author emphasizes that both air and surface disinfection, including hand hygiene, are important factors in controlling the transmission of airborne disease. He also proposes a variety of new solutions and technologies, including ultraviolet, ionization, ozone, plasma, and vegetative air cleaning systems. A compendium of scientific and medical information, this book helps hospitals control nosocomial infections and outbreaks spread by the airborne route as well as by direct contact and contact with fomites or contaminated equipment.

Contents

Airborne Nosocomial Infections

Introduction

Nosocomial Infection Epidemiology

Airborne Nosocomial Pathogens

Airborne Infection Categories

Infection Control Precautions

Infections in Health Care Workers

Multidrug Resistance

Toward Airborne Infection Control

References

Airborne Nosocomial Epidemiology

Introduction

Airborne Transmission Routes

Epidemiological Principles

Dosimetry of Airborne Disease

Survival of Microbes Outside the Host

Settling of Microbes in Air

References

Hospital Aerobiology

Introduction

Airborne Levels of Bacteria

Airborne Levels of Fungal Spores

Airborne Virus Levels

References

Airborne Nosocomial Microorganisms

Introduction

Airborne Nosocomial Pathogens

Airborne Nosocomial Bacteria

Airborne Nosocomial Viruses

Airborne Nosocomial Fungi

Database of Airborne Nosocomial Pathogens

References

Airborne Nosocomial Etiology

Introduction

Pathogen Aerosolization

Aerobiological Pathways

Airborne Transmission of Respiratory Infections

Airborne Transport of Fungal Spores

Shedding of Bacteria

Shedding of Clostridium difficile Spores

References

Hospital Facilities

Introduction

Hospital Ventilation and Filtration Systems

Hospital Zones and Rooms

Pressurization Control

References

Ventilation and Dilution

Introduction

Ventilation Dilution

The Steady State Model

Transient Modeling

Multizone Transient Modeling

References

Air Filtration

Introduction

Filters and Performance Curves

Filtration of Airborne Nosocomial Pathogens

HEPA and ULPA Filters

Face Masks and Respirators

References

Hospital Disinfection

Introduction

Cleaning, Disinfection, and Sterilization

Decontamination Methods

Disinfectants and Antiseptics

Disinfection of the Inanimate Environment

References

Hand Hygiene

Introduction

Skin Flora

Etiology of Hand Contamination

Strategies of Hand Hygiene

Skin Antiseptics

Handwashing Protocols

Generic Handwashing Protocol

References

Respiratory Infections

Introduction

Respiratory Tract Infections (RTIs)

Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

Nosocomial Pneumonia

Nosocomial Tuberculosis

References

Surgical Site Infections

Introduction

SSI Microbes

Aerobiology of Operating Rooms

Airborne SSIs

Airborne SSI Etiology

Control of Airborne SSIs

References

ICUs and Patient Rooms

Introduction

Intensive Care Units

Patient Rooms and General Wards

Hospital Laboratories

Other Hospital Areas

References

Pediatric Nosocomial Infections

Introduction

Pediatric Bacterial Infections

Pediatric Viral Infections

Nurseries and Childcare Facilities

References

Immunocompromised and Burn Wound Infections

Introduction

Immunodeficiency Infections

Burn Wound Infections

Cancer Clinics

References

Nursing Homes

Introduction

Nursing Home Bacterial Infections

Nursing Home Viral Infections

Nursing Home Options

References

Procedural Controls and Guidelines

Introduction

Hygiene and Disinfection Procedures and Controls

Infection Management Procedures

Building and Facility Guidelines

References

Air and Surface Sampling

Introduction

Air Sampling with Settle Plates

Air Sampling with an Air Sampler

Surface Sampling

Virus Detection and Sampling

Air and Surface Disinfection Standards

References

UVGI Air Disinfection

Introduction

Airstream Disinfection

Air Handling Units

Recirculation Units

Upper-Room Systems

Barrier Systems

UV Air Disinfection Field Trials

Combination of UV and Filtration

References

UVGI Surface Disinfection

Introduction

UVGI Surface Disinfection Modeling

Equipment Disinfection

Whole Room Disinfection

Floor Disinfection

Overhead Surgical Site UV Systems

Cooling Coil Disinfection

References

Alternative Air Cleaning Technologies

Introduction

PCO Systems

Ozone

Ionization

Plasma and Corona Systems

Pulsed Light

Passive Solar Exposure

Vegetation Air Cleaning

Material Selectivity

References

Appendix: Database of Airborne Nosocomial Pathogens

Index

Author Bio

Wladyslaw Kowalski, PhD, PE, has authored numerous articles related to air cleaning technology, biodefense, and hospital air disinfection, and has authored books and contributed chapters on these subjects, including the ASHRAE HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals and Clinics.He consults with hospitals on indoor air quality issues, including mold and bacterial contamination problems, and investigates hospital infection problems using air and surface sampling. Dr. Kowalski designs air disinfection systems for hospitals and commercial buildings and speaks at international conferences on disease control and air cleaning topics. He is also secretary of the Air Treatment Group of the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA). He is currently engaged in research on ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) and is developing new types of UVGI air and surface disinfection systems for the health care industry.

Name: Hospital Airborne Infection Control (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Wladyslaw Kowalski. Although nosocomial, or hospital-acquired, infections have been well cataloged and are fairly well understood, traditional solutions have failed to completely eliminate the problem. Even the most modern hospitals find themselves stymied by the...
Categories: Pollution, Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Hygiene