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Environmental Toxicology

Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition

By Ming-Ho Yu, Humio Tsunoda, Masashi Tsunoda

CRC Press – 2011 – 397 pages

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    978-1-43-984038-2
    November 15th 2011

Description

Human survival depends on the availability of clean air, water, and food and on the welfare of plants and animals. However, anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemicals can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecological processes. Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition presents fundamental information on the effects of environmental toxicants on living systems. It focuses on the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in the air, water, and soil and relates them to the health and well being of humans, animals, and plants.

An Indispensable Reference on Air, Soil, & Water Pollutants and Their Impact on Living Systems

Surveying the environmental and health changes that have occurred in recent decades, the book discusses the sources, metabolism, and damage process of toxicants, and the environmental, biological, and nutritional factors that may influence toxicity. It looks at natural defense systems, including the mechanisms for detoxification—such as endogenous antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes—on a cellular level.

The text examines the major toxicants: EPA criteria air pollutants, environmental fluoride, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), environmental metals and metalloids involved in soil and water pollution, and pesticides and related material such as PCBs and dioxins. It then addresses their relationship with endocrine disruption and environmental cancer. This comprehensive approach offers insight into the interaction of various chemical agents with DNA.

Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of this popular book includes new and updated material as well as a new chapter on occupational toxicology. Appendices cover the process of ecological risk assessment, carcinogens, and PCB nomenclature. Based on research from more than 35 years of teaching environmental toxicology and related courses, this textbook is a useful resource for students, professionals, and researchers interested in the effects of pollutants on living systems.

What’s New in This Edition

  • A new chapter on occupational toxicology, covering indoor air quality, chemicals in the workplace, nanoparticle exposure, and more
  • An updated chapter on environmental changes and health, including significant environmental changes that have occurred since the last edition
  • An updated chapter on environmental cancer, including changes in death rates of respiratory cancers
  • New material on the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in stratospheric ozone layer depletion
  • An expanded discussion of environmental disasters

Reviews

Praise for the Second Edition

This book is very well presented. A particular strength is the use of many examples of major pollution events and case studies, as well as an actual ecological impact assessment study in the appendix. Another strength is that review questions are given at the end of each chapter. … Overall, this is an excellent text on the subject, particularly for teachers and students of the basics of environmental studies.

—Marinus L. Otte, University College Dublin, in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 172, Issue 2, June 2006

Contents

Introduction

Study of Environmental Toxicology

Importance of Environmental Toxicology as an Area of Science

Introduction to this Book

Environmental Changes and Health

Our Changing Environment

Air Pollution

Indoor Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Soil Pollution

The Changing Diseases

Review Questions

References

Occurrence of Toxicants

Introduction

Visible Smoke or Smog

Offensive Odors

Agricultural Damage

Intoxication of Animals

Injuries to Humans

Chronic and Acute Effects

References

Toxic Action of Pollutants

Introduction

Effects on Plants

Mammalian Organisms

Mechanism of Toxic Action

Review Questions

References

Factors Affecting Xenobiotic Action

Introduction

Physiological Properties

Dose or Concentration

Duration and Mode of Exposure

Environmental Factors

Interaction

Biological Factors

Nutritional Factors

Review Questions

References

Biotransformation: Metabolism of Xenobiotics

Introduction

Types of Biotransformation

Mechanism of Biotransformation

Characteristics of Biotransformation

Consequence of Biotransformation

Factors Affecting Biotransformation

Characteristics of the Cytochrome P450s

Review Questions

References

Responses to Environmental Toxicants

Introduction

Responses of Plants

Responses of Humans and Animals

Review Questions

References

Air Pollution: Inorganic Gases

Introduction

Sulfur Dioxide

Nitrogen Dioxide

Ozone

Carbon Monoxide

Review Questions

References

Air Pollution: Particulate Matter

Introduction

Characteristics of Particulate Matter

Formation of Particulates

Health Effects

Silica

Beryllium

Asbestos

Lead

Review Questions

References

Environmental Fluoride

Introduction

Occurrence and Forms of Fluoride

Industrial Sources of Fluoride Pollution

Effects on Plants

Effects on Animals

Effects on Humans

Biochemical Effect of Fluoride

Nutrition and Fluoride Toxicity

Review Questions

References

Volatile Organic Compounds

Introduction

Sources

Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Review Questions

References

Soil and Water Pollution: Environmental Metals and Metalloids

Introduction

Lead

Cadmium

Mercury

Nickel

Arsenic

Review Questions

References

Pesticides and Related Materials

Introduction

Insecticides

Herbicides

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Polybrominated Biphenyls

Dioxin

Review Questions

References

Occupational Toxicology

Introduction

Changing Workplace Environment

Threshold Limit Values

Biological Exposure Indices

Respiratory Toxicity

Other Occupational Diseases Caused by Toxic Substances

Recent Chemicals of Concern

Review Questions

References

Endocrine Disruption

Introduction

Review of Hormonal Function

Characteristics of Endocrine Disrupters

Mode of Action

Examples of Endocrine Disruption

Hormonal Cancers

Testing Estrogenicity

Review Questions

References

Mutagenic Pollutants

Introduction

Types of Mutation

Effects of Mutation

Induction of Mutation

Review Questions

References

Environmental Cancer

Introduction

Causes of Cancer

Three Stages in the Development of Cancer

Metastasis

Classification of Carcinogens

Metabolism of Chemical Carcinogens

Respiratory Cancer Death Rates

DNA Repair

Review Questions

References

Appendix 1: Ecological Risk Assessment

Appendix 2: 11th Report on Carcinogens

Appendix 3: List of Cigarette Smoke Carcinogens

Appendix 4: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Nomenclature

Index

Author Bio

Dr. Ming-Ho Yu is professor emeritus at Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University. Dr. Yu served as the vice president and president of the International Society for Fluoride Research (ISFR) from 1986 to 1996 and is the associate editor of Fluoride, the official publication of the society. He is a founding coeditor of Environmental Sciences, a journal published in Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Yu is the author of Environmental Toxicology: Impacts of Environmental Toxicants on Living Systems and Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Second Edition and coauthor of Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes, published by CRC Press.

Dr. Humio Tsunoda is professor emeritus at Iwate Medical University in Morioka, Japan. He received a Green Cross Award from the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, and awards for distinguished service from the Ministry of Construction, the Ministry of Labor, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, the Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment, and the Japanese Society for Occupational Health. In 2010, Dr. Tsunoda received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon from the government of Japan.

Dr. Masashi Tsunoda is an associate professor at the Department of Preventive Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine in Japan. He is a councilor of the Japan Society for Biomedical Research on Trace Elements, an editorial board member of the International Society for Fluoride Research, and a board member of the Japanese Society of Immunotoxicology. He is coeditor of Kitasato Medical Journal and a guest reviewer of Toxicological Sciences.

Name: Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Ming-Ho Yu, Humio Tsunoda, Masashi Tsunoda. Human survival depends on the availability of clean air, water, and food and on the welfare of plants and animals. However, anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemicals can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecological processes...
Categories: Natural Hazards & Risk, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Health, Environmental & Ecological Toxicology