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Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry

A Practical Guide, Third Edition

By Eugene R. Weiner

CRC Press – 2013 – 618 pages

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    978-1-43-985332-0
    December 7th 2012

Description

Professionals and students who come from disciplines other than chemistry need a concise yet reliable guide that explains key concepts in environmental chemistry, from the fundamental science to the necessary calculations for applying them. Updated and reorganized, Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Third Edition provides the essential background for understanding and solving the most frequent environmental chemistry problems. Diverse and self-contained chapters offer a centralized and easily navigable framework for finding useful data tables that are ordinarily scattered throughout the literature.

Worked examples provide step-by-step details for frequently used calculations, drawing on case histories from real-world environmental applications. Chapters also offer tools for calculating quick estimates of important quantities and practice problems that apply the principles to different conditions. This practical guide provides an ideal basis for self-study, as well as short courses involving the movement and fate of contaminants in the environment.

In addition to extensive reorganization and updating, the Third Edition includes a new chapter, Nutrients and Odors: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur, two new appendices, Solubility of Slightly Soluble Metal Salts and Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Book, and new material and case studies on remediation, stormwater management, algae growth and treatment, odor control, and radioisotopes.

Contents

Water Quality

Defining Environmental Water Quality

Sources of Water Impurities

Measuring Impurities

Contaminant Behavior in the Environment: Basic Principles

Behavior of Contaminants in Natural Waters

What Are the Fates of Different Pollutants?

Processes that Remove Pollutants from Water

Some Major Contaminant Groups and Natural Pathways for their Removal from Water

Chemical and Physical Reactions in the Water Environment

Partitioning Behavior of Pollutants

Intermolecular Forces

Origins of Intermolecular Forces: Electronegativities, Chemical Bonds, and Molecular Geometry

Solubility and Intermolecular Attractions

References

Major Water Quality Parameters and Applications

Interactions Among Water Quality Parameters

pH

Carbon Dioxide, Bicarbonate, and Carbonate

Acidity and Alkalinity

Oxidation–Reduction Potential

Hardness

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand

Solids (Total, Suspended, and Dissolved)

Temperature

Drinking Water Treatment

References

Nutrients and Odors: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

Nutrients and Odors

Nitrogen: Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate

Phosphorus

Nutrient (N + P) Contamination: The Eutrophication and Algae Problems

Sulfide (S2−) and Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

Odors of Biological Origin in Water (Mostly from Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Products)

References

Behavior of Metal Species in the Natural Environment

Metals in Water

Mobility of Metals in Water/Soil Environments

General Behavior of Dissolved Metals in Water

Adjusting pH to Remove Metals from Water by Precipitation

Your Results May Vary

How ORP Affects the Solubility of Metals

ORP-Sensitive and ORP-Insensitive Metals

Metal Water Quality Standards

Applications

References

Soil, Groundwater, and Subsurface Contamination

Nature of Soils

Soil Profiles

Organic Matter in Soil

Soil Zones

Contaminants Become Distributed in Water, Soil, and Air

Partition Coefficients

Mobility of Contaminants in the Subsurface

Particulate Transport in Groundwater: Colloids

Case Study: Clearing Muddy Ponds

Ion Exchange

Agricultural Water Quality

General Properties of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids and the Behavior of Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids in the Subsurface

Types and Properties of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

General Characteristics of Petroleum Liquids: The Most Common LNAPL

Behavior of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Subsurface

Formation of Petroleum Contamination Plumes

Estimating the Amount of LNAPL Free Product in the Subsurface

Estimating the Amount of Residual LNAPL Immobilized in the Subsurface

Chemical Fingerprinting of LNAPLs

Simulated Distillation Curves and Carbon Number Distribution Curves

References

Behavior of Dense Nonaqueous Liquids in the Subsurface Phase

DNAPL Properties

DNAPL Free Product Mobility

Testing for the Presence of DNAPL

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

References

Biodegradation and Bioremediation of LNAPLs and DNAPLs

Biodegradation and Bioremediation

Basic Requirements for Biodegradation

Biodegradation Processes

Natural Aerobic Biodegradation of NAPL Hydrocarbons

Determining the Extent of Bioremediation of LNAPL

Bioremediation of Chlorinated DNAPLs

References

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Water and Soil Environment

Introduction

Radionuclides

Emissions and Their Properties

Units of Radioactivity and Absorbed Radiation

Naturally Occurring Radioisotopes in the Environment

Technologies for Removing Uranium, Radium, and Radon from Water

References

Selected Topics in Environmental Chemistry

Treatment of Pollutants in Urban Stormwater Runoff

Water Quality Profile of Groundwater in Coal-Bed Methane Formations

Indicators of Fecal Contamination: Coliform and Streptococci Bacteria

Reusing Municipal Wastewater: The Problem of Pathogens

Oil and Grease Analysis

Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Environmental Sampling

Deicing and Sanding of Roads: Controlling Environmental Effects

Appendices

A Selective Dictionary of Water Quality Parameters and Pollutants

Solubility of Slightly Soluble Metal Salts

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Book

Answers to Selected Chapter Exercises

Name: Applications of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry: A Practical Guide, Third Edition (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Eugene R. Weiner. Professionals and students who come from disciplines other than chemistry need a concise yet reliable guide that explains key concepts in environmental chemistry, from the fundamental science to the necessary calculations for applying them. Updated and...
Categories: Environmental Chemistry, Marine & Aquatic Science, Water Science