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Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (Two-Volume Set)

By Mohammed M. Ettouney, Sreenivas Alampalli

CRC Press – 2011 – 1,320 pages

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    September 26th 2011


Winner of the Inaugural Journal of Bridge Structures’ Book Award

Continually increasing demands on infrastructure mean that maintenance and renewal require timely, appropriate action that maximizes benefits while minimizing cost. To be as well informed as possible, decision-makers must have an optimal understanding of an infrastructure’s condition—what it is now, and what it is expected to be in the future. Written by two respected engineers, Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering is presented in two corresponding volumes that integrate the decision making concept into theoretical and practical issues.

The first volume, Theory and Components, includes:

  • An overview of the infrastructure health in civil engineering (IHCE) and associated theories
  • In-depth description of the four components of IHCE: measurements, structural identification, damage identification, and decision making
  • Discussion of how IHCE and asset management are applied
  • Exploration of analogies between structural and human health

The second volume, Applications and Management, covers:

  • State-of-the-art practices and future directions
  • Use of probability and statistics in areas including structural modeling
  • Specific practical applications, including retrofitting and rehabilitation in response to earthquake damage, corrosion, fatigue, and bridge security
  • Use of IHCE for management and maintenance of different types of structures using pre-stressed and reinforced concrete, and fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs)
  • Numerous practical case studies, as well as coverage of the latest techniques in the use of sensors for damage detection and load testing

This set comprises, perhaps for the first time, an invaluable integrated guide to the wide range of structural hazards—including scour, earthquakes, fatigue, corrosion, and damage to pre-stressed systems. It then lays out the optimized, cost-saving methods that will help readers meet safety specifications for new projects, as well as the aging infrastructure at great risk of failure.


"Written by two respected engineers … integrates the decision-making concept into theoretical and practical issues. … sets up the path, details, and needs for a new field in civil engineering: infrastructure health."

Journal of Bridge Engineering, May/June 2012



PART I: Overview and Theories of IHCE


Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (IHCE)

General Concepts of Infrastructures Health

History of Structural Health Efforts

Need for Infrastructure Health Efforts

Analogy with Human Health

Structural Health: A New Field in Civil Engineering?

Structural Health: Integration of Fields

Horizontal Integration: Multihazards

Vertical Integration: Multidisciplinary

SHM and IHCE: a Quick Primer

Challenges Ahead

Appendix I: DHS Infrastructure Sectors (as of 2009)

Elements of Structural Health in Civil Engineering (SHCE)

SHCE: A New Field in Civil Engineering?

SHCE: Baseball Analogy

SHCE and DESIGN Paradigms

NDT versus SHM

Value of Information

Lives and Deaths of Infrastructures


Birth of Bridges

Why Bridges Live?

Why Bridges Fail/Die?

Examples of Bridge Failures

Appendix I: Count of Bridges in the United States by Construction Material


Theories and Principles of IHCE


General theory of Experimentation (GTE)

Special Theory of Experimentation (STE)

Theory of SHM Triangulation

Duality Principle in SHM

Scaling Principle in SHM

Serendipity Principle in SHM

PART II: Components of IHCE

Sensors and Infrastructures Health


Sensor Categorizations

Basics of Sensor Behavior

Sensor Measurements in SHM

Emerging Technology: Fiber Optics Sensors

Wireless Sensors

Smart Structures

Optimum Sensor Selection

Optimum Sensor Location

Step by Step Guide for Choosing Sensors

Remote Sensing in SHM

Structural Identification (STRID)


STRID Processes

Modal Identification Methods

Parameter Identification (PI)

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

Other Methods

Modeling Techniques

Scale Independent Methods (SIM)

Case Studies

Life Cycle Analysis and STRID

Cost-Benefit Analysis of STRID

Damage Identification (DMID)


Damage Parameters


NDT Techniques

Acoustic Emission

Vibration-based Methods

Signal Processing and DMID

Damage Identification in SHM

Appendix: Lamb Waves

Appendix: Dispersion Curves

Appendix: Helmholtz Equation

Appendix: Angular Spectrum Method

Decision Making in IHCE


Decision Making Process and Structural Health Components

Probability and Statistics

Traditional Theories of Decision Making



Stochastic Models

Structural Analysis in Decision Making

Financial Considerations



PART III: Applications



Types and Causes of Scour

Scour Mitigation Measures

Bridge Health and Scour

Case Studies

Bridge Life Cycle Analysis and Scour Effects

Decision Making and SCOUR

Management Strategies for Scour Hazard

Appendix: NBI System



Bridge Components and Seismic Hazards

SHM Components and Seismic Hazards

Case Studies

Decision Making and Earthquake Hazard

General Engineering Paradigms, Earthquakes, and Structural Health

Resilience of Infrastructures

LCA and Earthquake Hazards

Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures


Corrosion: The problem

Corrosion Monitoring

Corrosion Mitigation Methods

STRID and Corrosion Hazard

Decision Making and Corrosion Hazard

Case Studies

Bridge Life Cycle Analysis and Corrosion Monitoring

Appendix: Chloride Diffusion and Corrosion Initiation

Pre-stressed Concrete Bridges


Anatomy of PSC Bridges

Damage to PSC Bridges

Structural Identification

Damage Detection

Decision Making

Case Studies

LCA of PT-PS Systems



NDT Treatment of Fatigue

SHM Treatment of Fatigue

Virtual Sensing Paradigm

Step-by-Step Approach for Remaining Fatigue Life

Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of a Truss Bridge with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Deck

Estimating Fatigue Life of Bridge Components Using Measured Strains: Practical Application

BLCA and Fatigue

Dirlik Rainflow Empirical Solution

Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Bridge Decks


The Advent of FRP Bridge Decks

Health of FRP Bridge Deck

Decision Making and FRP Bridge Decks

Case Studies

LCA for FRP Bridge Decks

Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Wrapping


Physical and Theoretical Background

NDT Methods for FRP Wrapping


East Church Street Bridge

Troy Bridge

Congress Street Bridge

Guide to SHM Usage in FRP Wrapping

Decision Making Example: When to Retrofit with FRP Wrapping?

LCA of FRP Wrapping

Sources of Damage in FRP Laminates

PART IV: Management of Infrastructure Health

Load Testing


General Considerations for Load Testing

Categories of Load Tests

Sensors, Instrumentations, Hardware, and Software

STRID in Load Testing

Damage Identification in Load Testing

Decision Making in Load Testing

Cost, Benefit, and LCA of Bridge Load Tests

Monitoring and Load Testing of Court Street Bridge

Load Testing for Bridge Rating: Route 22 Over Swamp River

Bridge Management and Infrastructure Health


Bridge Management Strategies and SHM





Bridge Management Tools and SHM

Life-Cycle Analysis and Infrastructure Health


Bridge Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Bridge Life Cycle Benefit Analysis

Bridge Lifespan Analysis

Interrelationship of BLCCA, BLCBA, and BLSA

Use of BLCA in Decision Making


Generalized Approach to LCA

Role of Structural Health Monitoring in Enhancing Bridge Security


Concept of 4Ds

Security-Specific Technology and SHM Utilization

SHM-Specific Techniques and Bridge Security

Decision Making: Prioritization

Life Cycle Analysis

Concluding Remarks


Name: Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (Two-Volume Set) (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: By Mohammed M. Ettouney, Sreenivas Alampalli. Winner of the Inaugural Journal of Bridge Structures’ Book Award Continually increasing demands on infrastructure mean that maintenance and renewal require timely, appropriate action that maximizes benefits while minimizing cost. To be as well...
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