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Chronic Inflammation

Molecular Pathophysiology, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions

Edited by Sashwati Roy, Debasis Bagchi, Siba P. Raychaudhuri

CRC Press – 2012 – 472 pages

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    978-1-43-987211-6
    September 16th 2012

Description

Although acute inflammation is a healthy physiological response indicative of wound healing, chronic inflammation has been directly implicated in a wide range of degenerative human health disorders encompassing almost all present day non-communicable diseases including autoimmune diseases, obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Chronic Inflammation: Molecular Pathophysiology, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions provides an exposition of the process of chronic inflammation in three parts:

  1. Systems Biology of Inflammation and Regulatory Mechanisms describes the process of chronic inflammation including initiation, progression, and resolution.

  2. Pathologies Associated with Inflammation gives a rigorous and critical treatment of specific human health disorders where chronic inflammation plays a major role.

  3. Nutrition & Therapeutics for Inflammatory Diseases details the protective abilities of structurally diverse antioxidants, phytochemicals, anti-inflammatory diets, omega-3 fatty acids, NSAIDs, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and novel regimens.

Designed for scientists as well as clinicians, Chronic Inflammation provides critical understanding of the key checkpoints that regulate chronic inflammation. Going beyond the epidemiology of chronic inflammation, the text covers regulatory mechanisms controlling inflammation initiation, progression, and resolution. The authors address pathologies associated with inflammation and provide various nutritional and therapeutic interventions for inflammatory diseases.

Contents

SECTION I Systems Biology of Inflammation and Regulatory Mechanisms

At the Interface between Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Insights from Computational Modeling

Yoram Vodovotz

Inflammation in Health and Disease: A Robust, Adaptive, Multiscale System

Inflammation Is a Complex System with Context-Dependent Regulation: Insights from Computational Modeling

From Wound Healing to Cancer: Modeling Interrelationships among Acute Inflammation, Chronic Inflammation, and Cancer

From Modeling to Rational Reprogramming of Inflammation

Summary: Clinical and Basic Science Perspectives

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgments

References

The Cellular Component of Chronic Inflammation

Julie Roda and Tim Eubank

What is Chronic Inflammation?

The Cellular Component of Chronic Inflammation

Take-Home Messages

References

Mast Cells in Chronic Inflammation

Traci A. Wilgus and Brian C. Wulff

Mast Cell Biology

Physiological Functions

Pathological Role in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Inflammation

Kiichi Hirota

Inflammation

Interaction between Hypoxic Environment and Inflammation

Canonical Signaling Pathway to Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Activation

Oxygen Tension-Independent Activation of HIF

Cross Talk between NF-κB and HIF Immunocompetent Cells and HIF Impact of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on HIF Activity

Inflammatory Disorders and HIF

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Bioactive Phospholipid Mediators of Inflammation

Sainath R. Kotha, Jordan D. Secor, Smitha Malireddy, and Narasimham L. Parinandi

Salient Features of Inflammation

Mediators of Inflammation

Phosphatidic Acid (PA) as a Bioactive Phospholipid Mediator of Inflammation

Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) as a Bioactive Phospholipid Mediator of Inflammation

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgements

References

Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Atherosclerotic Development and Resolution

Reeva Aggarwal, Vincent J. Pompili, and Hiranmoy Das

Introduction

HSC Regulation of Self-Renewal

Differentiation of HSCs

Development of Atherosclerosis

Therapies for Atherosclerosis

Development of Ischemia and Therapy

Conclusions and Perspectives

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgments

References

Inflammation as a Confounding Factor in Regenerative Medicine

Myron Allukian and Kenneth W. Liechty

Inflammation

Cells

Extracellular Matrix

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Points

References

NOx in the CNS: Inflammation and Beyond

Annadora J. Bruce-Keller

NOx History and Structure

Cell Type Specific Expression and Function in Brain

Physiologic Mechanisms of NOx Signaling

Conclusions and Unanswered Questions

Take-Home Messages

References

Resolution of Inflammation

Amitava Das and Sashwati Roy

Introduction

Cascades of Wound Healing

Resolution of Inflammation

Role of Micrornas in Inflammation

Linking Micrornas and Lipid Mediators in Resolution of Inflammation

Take-Home Messages

References

H2S in Inflammation

Hyun-Ock Pae and Hun-Taeg Chung

Introduction

Dynamic Interplay of H2S with NO and CO in Inflammatory Conditions

Janus Face of H2S: Its Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Perspectives

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgements

References

SECTION II Pathologies Associated with Inflammation

Is There a Connection between Inflammation and Oxidative Stress?

Chandrakala Aluganti Narasimhulu, Xueting Jiang, Zhaohui Yang, Krithika Selvarajan, and Sampath Parthasarathy

Introduction

Atherosclerosis

Oxidative Stress and Atherosclerosis

Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

Would Anti-Inflammatories and Antioxidants Prevent Atherosclerosis?

Conclusions

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgements

References

Chronic Inflammation and Cancer: A Matter of Lifestyle

Subash C. Gupta, Ji Hye Kim, Sahdeo Prasad, and Bharat B. Aggarwal

What Is Inflammation?

Regulation of Inflammation at the Molecular Level

Lifestyle Factors That Activate Inflammation

How Inflammation Causes Cancer

Controlling Inflammation and Cancer

Conclusion and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgments

References

Chronic Wounds and Inflammation

Jaideep Banerjee and Chandan K. Sen

Introduction

Most Common Types of Chronic Wounds

Phases of Healing

Wound Inflammatory Response

Excess Inflammation is Associated with Impaired Wound Healing

MicroRNAs in Chronic Inflammation

Biofi lm and Chronic Wound Inflammation

Conclusion and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Multiphasic Roles for TGF-Beta in Scarring: Implications for Therapeutic Intervention

Praveen R. Arany, George X. Huang, and Woo Seob Kim

Introduction

Etiopathogenesis of Scar Generation

TGF-β1 as a Plausible Link Targeting TGF-β1 in Scar Management

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Natural Vitamin E Tocotrienol against Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress

Cameron Rink and Savita Khanna

Central Nervous System Immunology

Tocotrienol Vitamin E

Arachidonic Acid Cascade in NeuroInflammatory Disease

Conclusion and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Inflammatory Cascades in Autoimmune Disease

Amita Aggarwal and Arpita Myles

Introduction

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Take-Home Messages

References

Shear Stress and Vascular Inflammation: A Study in the Lung

John Noel and Shampa Chatterjee

Introduction

Haemodynamic Forces and the Quiescent and Activated Endothelium

Disturbed Flow and Inflammatory Responses of Endothelial Cells

Inflammation in the Pulmonary Endothelium

The Pulmonary Endothelium as a Therapeutic Target

Conclusions

Take-Home Messages

References

NGF and Its Receptor System in Inflammatory Diseases

Anupam Mitra, Smriti K. Raychaudhuri, and Siba P. Raychaudhuri

Neurogenic Inflammation

NGF and Its Receptor

NGF and Its Role in Inflammatory Cascade

Role of NGF in Different Inflammatory Diseases

Conclusions

Take-Home Messages

References

SECTION III Nutrition & Therapeutics for Inflammatory Diseases

Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants

Naveen Kaushal, Vivek Narayan, Ujjawal H. Gandhi, Shakira M. Nelson,Anil Kumar Kotha, and K. Sandeep Prabhu

Introduction

ROS Mediated Oxidative Stress as Source of Inflammation

Antioxidants as Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Trace Elements as Antioxidants

Summary and Future Directives

Acknowledgments

Take-Home Messages

References

Lipid Biomarkers of Inflammation

Ginger L. Milne

Introduction

Prostaglandins and Inflammation

Leukotrienes and Inflammation

Nonenzymatic Lipid Peroxidation: The Isoprostanes

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Physical Activity and Inflammation: An Overview

Edite Teixeira de Lemos and Flávio Reis

The State of Low-Grade Inflammation—Healthy Significance

The Anti-Inflammatory Nature of Physical Activity

Exercise-Induced Inflammation

Physical Activity for the Treatment of Low-Grade Inflammation in Cardiometabolic Disorders: Focus on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

Philip C. Calder

Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids—Naming, Biosynthesis, Sources, and Intakes

Omega-6 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cells Involved in Inflammation

Arachidonic Acid Is a Precursor of Eicosanoid Mediators Involved in Inflammation

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Lipid Mediators

Omega-3 Fatty Acids Decrease NFkB-Mediated Inflammatory Signaling

Effects of EPA and DHA on T Cells

Omega-3 Fatty Acids as a Therapeutic Option for Chronic Inflammation

Conclusions

Take-Home Messages

References

Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals, Obesity, and Diabetes: An Overview

Srujana Rayalam, MaryAnne Della-Fera, and Clifton A. Baile

Introduction

Obesity and Diabetes as Major Public Health Issues

Adipose Tissue as a Secretory Organ

Relationship between Obesity, Diabetes, and Inflammation

Complications of Obesity and Diabetes

Phytochemicals in Obesity and Diabetes

Perspectives

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

References

Anti-Inflammatory Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicines for the Management of Metabolic Syndrome

George Q. Li, Ka H. Wong, Antony Kam, Xian Zhou, Eshaifol A. Omar, Ali Alqahtani, Kong M. Li, Valentina Razmovski-Naumovski, and Kelvin Chan

Introduction

Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Heat Clearing Chinese Herbs for Metabolic Syndrome

Anti-Inflammatory Food and Tea

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Management of Metabolic Syndrome

Discussion and Summary

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgments

References

Epigenetics and Nutriepigenomics in Chronic Inflammatory Lung Diseases: Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions

Saravanan Rajendrasozhanm, Isaac K. Sundar, and Irfan Rahman

Lung Inflammation and Pathogenesis of Chronic Lung Diseases (Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Epigenetic/Epigenomic Changes

Molecular Epigenomic Targets for Therapeutic Interventions

Nutriepigenomics

Perspectives

Conclusions and Future Directions

Take-Home Messages

Acknowledgments

References

Biologics: Molecular Medicine from Bench to Bedside

Ananya Datta Mitra, Siba P. Raychaudhuri, Smriti K. Raychaudhuri, and Debasis Bagchi

Introduction

Interplay of the Immune System in the Development of Autoimmune Disease

Targets for Biologics

Conclusions

Take-Home Messages

References

Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs

Nigil Haroon and Vinod Chandran

Introduction

Methotrexate

Leflunomide

Sulfasalazine

Antimalarials

Azathioprine

Cyclosporin A

Other DMARDs

Conclusions

Take-Home Messages

References

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Alakendu Ghosh and Pradyot Sinhamahapatra

Introduction

History

Mechanism of Action

Classification

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics

Clinical Uses of NSAIDs

How to Guide Therapy

Adverse Reactions and Toxicities of NSAIDs

Choice of NSAIDs

Precautions for Use of NSAIDs

Drug Interactions

Special Situations and Toxicities

Treatment Options for Patients with Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Risk Take-Home Messages

References

Web sites

General Resources

Index

Author Bio

Sashwati Roy, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery and Director, Laser Capture Molecular Core in the College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus.

Debasis Bagchi, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Houston, Texas. His research interests include free radicals, human diseases, carcinogenesis, pathophysiology, mechanistic aspects of cytoprotection by antioxidants, regulatory pathways in obesity, and gene expression.

Siba P. Raychaudhuri, MD, is the Chief of the Rheumatology Division at the VA Medical Center in Sacramento, California, and a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Raychaudhuri’s major research focus is to understand the molecular mechanisms of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

Name: Chronic Inflammation: Molecular Pathophysiology, Nutritional and Therapeutic Interventions (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: Edited by Sashwati Roy, Debasis Bagchi, Siba P. Raychaudhuri. Although acute inflammation is a healthy physiological response indicative of wound healing, chronic inflammation has been directly implicated in a wide range of degenerative human health disorders encompassing almost all present day non-communicable...
Categories: Nutrition, Molecular Biology, Endocrinology