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Green Communications

Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms and Applications

Edited by Jinsong Wu, Sundeep Rangan, Honggang Zhang

CRC Press – 2012 – 840 pages

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    978-1-46-650107-2
    September 20th 2012

Description

Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone’s head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction.

Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential solutions is far from being fully explored. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of academic research and relevant applications in green communications. It aims to increase understanding of relevant issues and further the development of strategies and techniques.

Gathering efforts from world-leading experts on green topics with different focuses, such as mobile communications, wireless networks, ad hoc and sensor networks, cloud computing, optical networking, smart grids, network devices, even FPGA and terminal devices, combined with the best practices from the largest telecommunication operator, China Mobile Corporation, this book covers key features such as:

  • Not only focuses on energy saving of ICT industry, but also figures out its role to help other industries reduce energy consumption
  • Comprehensively covers almost all main aspects in green communications
  • Includes recent advances in theoretical analysis, algorithms, and practical applications for green wired and wireless communications
  • Readers do not have to be professionals in communications to understand the basic ideas in the book

This book brings green wired and wireless communications, as well as other general green topics, in one book, which will give readers a panoramic view in the relevant green fields.

Contents

Runtime-Controlled Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs; Assem A. M. Bsoul, Stuart Dueck, and Steven J. E. Wilton

Introduction

Island-Style Field-Programmable Gate Arrays

Architecture

CAD Flow for FPGAs

Power Dissipation in VLSI

Dynamic Power

Static

Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs

Clock Gating

Controlled Body Biasing

Dynamic Reconfiguration

Multiple Supply Voltages

CAD Techniques

Other Techniques

Runtime-Controlled Power-Gated FPGAs

Architecture Description

Evaluation

Architecture Evaluation

Example Application

Conclusion

Smart Grid and ICT's Role in Its Evolution; Hassan Farhangi

Climate Change

Conventional Electricity Grid

Overview of Smart Grid

Smart Grid Applications

Command and Control Strategies

Smart Grid Building Blocks

Smart Grid Network Topologies

Smart Grid Communication Systems

Smart Grid ICT Future Developments

Suggested Readings

Energy Saving Solutions and Practices of China Mobile; Sen Bian, Huabin Tang, Xidong Wang, Jinsong Wu, and Zhihong Zhang, Chih-Lin I, and Bill Huang

Introduction

Energy Consumption Status and Objective of CMCC

Views on Energy Saving of Wireless Communication Devices and Systems from CMCC

Energy Saving Solutions for Wireless Networks

The High-Energy-Efficient Hardware Platform

RRUs in Distributed Base Stations

Distributed RRU Networking

Multi-Carrier Distributed Base Station

Energy Saving Advantages

Software Power-Saving Features

Intelligent Power-Saving Technology

GSM Intelligent Power-Saving System Based on Base Station Sector Switching

System Overview

Typical Power-Saving Proposals

Highly Energy-Efficient RAN Network Architecture

Energy Saving Proposals for Core Networks and Data Centers

Energy Saving of Data Center Facilities

Data Center Energy Efficiency Assessment and Optimization

The Analysis of the Main Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency

Technologies and Measures for Optimizing Energy Efficiency

The Construction of the New Generation of Green Data Center

Energy Saving of IT Equipment

Improve Equipment Efficiency Requirements

Applications of Server Virtualization

Power Management for Cloud Computing

Energy-Saving Solutions for Accessory Equipments

Energy-Saving Solutions for the Refrigeration System

Smart Ventilation System

Heat-Pipe Heat-Exchanger Unit

The Energy Saving Solutions for Backup Power Systems

Lithium Iron-Phosphate Battery

The Thermostat for Rechargeable Battery

Energy Saving Solutions Using Renewable Energy

Solar Energy Utilization for Base Stations

Base Stations Powered by Wind Energy Technologies

Standard Methodologies for Energy Efficiency Assessment; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, and Chiara Lombardo

Introduction

An Overview on Novel Green Network Technologies

Internet Evolution and Concern over Energy Wastes

Current Approaches and Concepts for Low-Energy Networking

Benchmarking Methodologies

ECR 3.0.1

ATIS 060015.03.2009

RFC 2544

Other Upcoming Propositions

Comparison among the Standards

Performance Evaluation

Extending Current Evaluation Methodologies

Test Results

Conclusions

Reciprocal Learning for Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, Jinsong Wu, and Tao Chen

Introduction

Network Model and Problem Formulation

Distributed Learning Algorithms with Dynamic Conjectures

A Best Response Learning Method for OSA

The Best Response Strategies

Global Convergence of the Dynamic Network

OSA by Gradient Ascent Algorithms

Numerical Results

Conclusion

Green Communications for Carbon Emission Reductions: Architectures and Standards; Charles Despins, Fabrice Labeau, Richard Labelle, Mohamed Cheriet, Alberto Leon-Garcia,

and Omar Cherkaoui

Introduction

Network Architectures and Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions

Networks and Protocols

Integrated Optical-Wireless Access

Data Centers

Testbeds

Greenstar

NetVirt

SAVI

Carbon Standards for Communications Technologies

Power and Performance Measurement Challenges

Network and System Operation Challenges

The Need for Carbon Standards Adapted to Communications Technologies

Standards Development in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

Conclusion

The Role of ICT in the Evolution Towards Smart Grids; Raffaele Bolla, Flavio Cucchietti, and Matteo Repetto

Introduction

Legacy Energy Grids

The Concept of Smart Grid

Hot Topics for Smart Grids

Load Management

Wide Area Situation Awareness

Distributed Generation

Microgrids

Energy Storage

AMI Systems

Electric Vehicles

Energy Gateways

Man-Machine Interfaces

Network Management

Grid Management

Market Operations

Political and Standardization Initiatives

Policies and Directives

Europe

North America

Asia

Research Projects in Europe

Standardization Efforts

Architectures for Smart Grids

Conceptual Models of Smart Grids

Layout of the Communication System

Distributed Services and Applications

Data Models and Information Exchange

Networking

Communication Media and Technologies

Network Architectures

Local Area Networks

Home Area Networks

Access Networks

Neighborhood Area Networks

Wide Area Networks

Research Issues and Challenges for ICT

Moving a Processing Element from Hot to Cool Spots: Is This an Efficient Method to Decrease Leakage Power Consumption in FPGAs?; Amor Nafkha, Pierre Leray, Yves Louet, and Jacques Palicot

Introduction

Power Consumption Sources

Static Power

Short-Circuit Power

Dynamic Power

Dynamic Versus Static Power

Digital Thermal Sensor

Ring Oscillator vs. System Monitor

Ring Oscillator vs. FPGA VCCINT Voltage Supply

Experimental Setup

Processing Element Number 1: Random Number Generator

Processing Element Number 2: MicroBlaze

Experiments and Results

Temperature vs. Leakage Current Consumption

FPGA Temperature Analysis

Conclusion

Cloud Computing - A Greener Future for IT; Jinzy Zhu and Xing Fang

Introduction

Why IT Needs to be Green

Cloud Computing, the Future of IT

What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud Computing Classification

Cloud Computing Characteristics

Why does Cloud Computing Make IT Green?

Cloud Foundation: Green Data Center

Green Measurement, PUE

Data Center Site Selection

Datacenter Construction

Power Conversion and UPS

Cooling

Cloud Building Block: Green Hardware

Energy Saving Chip

Energy Saving Hardware

Cloud Core: Intelligent Management Software

Virtualization

Automation

Autonomic Management

Outlook to a Green Cloud Future

Energy-Effcient Management of Campus PCs; Luca Chiaraviglio and Marco Mellia

Introduction

Motivations

Reducing PCs Power Consumption: Why Now?

Impact of PCs Power in Campus Environments

Monitoring PC Usage

Methodology

Results

Active Devices vs. Energy Consumption

Device Classification

Energy Consumption of Networked Devices

Characterization of Users' Habit

Discussion

Reducing PC Energy Consumption

PoliSave Architecture

Client Architecture

Server Architecture

Communication Protocols

Discussion and Implementation Issues

Results

Testbed Description

Minimizing the Number of PCs On

Automatic vs. Manual Operations

Different Users' Profiles

Users' Characterization

Discussion

Related Work

Conclusion

FOCUS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

C-RAN: A Green RAN Framework; Kuilin (Clark) Chen, Chunfeng Cui, Yuhong Huang, and Bill Huang

Introduction

Challenges of Today's RAN

Explosive Network Data Traffic

Large Number of BS and High Power Consumption

Rapid Increasing CAPEX and OPEX

Dynamic Mobile Network Load

Growing Internet Service Pressure on the Core Network

Architecture of C-RAN

Overall Concept

Different Technical Approaches

Advantages of C-RAN

Energy Efficient Perspective

RAN Cost Structure Optimization Perspective

Enhanced Network Performance Perspective

Service on the Edge

Challenges of C-RAN

Efficient Transmission of Radio over Optical Transport Networks

Cooperative Transmission and Reception on C-RAN

Real-time Cloud and BS Virtualization

Performance and Power Challenge of SDR on General Purpose Processor

China Mobile's View on RAN Evolution Path

Trials on GSM/TD-SCDMA Network

Overall Situation

Field Trial Area

Overall Solution

Progress in C-RAN PoC system

Potential Evolution Path

C-RAN Centralized Base Station Deployment

Multi-Standard SDR and Joint Signal Processing

Virtual BS on Real-time Cloud Infrastructure

Conclusions

Green Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Ting Zhu, Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Ping Yi, and Jianqing Ma

Introduction

Energy Harvesting Techniques

Energy Conservation Techniques

Energy Synchronization Techniques

A Feedback-Based Energy Synchronization Control

An Energy Synchronized Communication Protocol

Green Wireless Communications under Quality of Service Constraints; Deli Qiao, Mustafa Cenk Gursoy, and Senem Velipasalar

Introduction

Preliminaries - Effective Capacity and Energy Per Information Bit

Effective Capacity

Spectral Efficiency vs. Bit Energy

Variable-Rate/Variable-Power and Variable-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions

Channel Model

Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime

CSI at the Receiver Only

CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver

Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime

CSI at the Receiver Only

CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver

Fixed-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions

Channel Model

Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime

Energy Efficiency In The Low-Power Regime

Transmissions over Imperfectly-Known Wireless Channels

Training and Data Transmission Phases

Training Phase

Data Transmission Phase and Capacity Lower Bound

Fixed-Rate Transmission and ON-OFF Model

Optimal Training Power

Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime

Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime

Decomposing the Wideband Channel into Narrowband Subchannels

Rich and Sparse Multipath Fading Scenarios

Conclusion

On the Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-off in Cellular Systems; Fabien Heliot, Efstathios Katranaras, Oluwakayode Onireti, and Muhammad Ali Imran

Introduction

Background Literature

Spectral Efficiency

Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-Off

Explicit Formulation vs. Approximation

Low-Power Approximation Approach

EE-SE Closed-Form Approximation

Idealistic vs. Realistic Power Consumption Model

Limitations on the Idealistic Power Model

Realistic Power Model Perspective

Power Model Mathematical Framework

EE-SE Trade-Off on a Link

AWGN Channel

Deterministic Channel with Colored Gaussian Noise

Ergodic Rayleigh Fading Channel

Channel Capacity: CFE vs. CFA

CFA of the MIMO EE-SE Trade-Off

CFA of the SISO EE-SE Trade-Off

Accuracy of the CFAs: Numerical Results

MIMO vs. SISO: An Energy Efficiency Analysis

MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Idealistic PCM

MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Realistic PCM

EE-SE Trade-Off in a Cell

SISO Orthogonal Multi-User Channel

SISO Multi-User Channel with Residual Interference

EE-Based Resource Allocation

Single User Optimal EE

EE vs. SE Resource Allocation

EE-SE Trade-Off in Cellular Systems

The Key Role of CoMP in Cellular Systems

Relevant Background on CoMP

Power Model Implications

Backhaul

Signal Processing

Global Cooperation: CFA of EE-SE Trade-Off

EE-SE Analysis of the Symmetrical Cellular Model

Clustered CoMP: The Transmit EE-SE Relationship

Conclusion and Outlook

Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management; Adnan Aijaz, Oliver Holland, Paul Pangalos, Hamid Aghvami, and Hanna Bogucka

Background

Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management

Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment

Cellular - Cellular Offloading

Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading

Cellular - White-Fi Offloading

Power Saving by Propagation Improvement

Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing

Performance Assessment

Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment

Cellular - Cellular Offloading

Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading

Cellular - White-Fi Offloading

Power Saving by Propagation Improvement

Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing

Conclusion

Toward Energy-Efficient Operation of Base Stations in Cellular Wireless Networks; Kyuho Son, Hongseok Kim, Yung Yi, and Bhaskar Krishnamachari

Introduction

Overview of Green Cellular Network Design

Energy-Aware Heterogeneous Deployment

Micro Base Station Deployment Strategy

System Model

Problem Formulation

Key Observations and Algorithm

Numerical Results

Deployment Structure: Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous

System Model

Problem Formulation

Optimal Area Power Consumption vs. Target 10-Percentile Area Throughput

Base Station On/Off and User Association

A Quantitative Case Study

System Model and Formulation

Energy-Efficient User Association

Traffic-Driven Base Station On/Off

Greedy Turning on Algorithm

Design Rationale

Greedy Turning off Algorithm

Discussion: GON and GOFF

Interpretation

Other Heuristic Algorithms

Numerical Results

Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Energy-Proportional BSs

Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Non-Energy-Proportional BSs

Effect of BS Density on Energy Savings

Other Issues and Discussions

Open Problems and Other Directions Towards Green Cellular Networks

Ongoing Projects and Consortiums

Green Wireless Access Networks; Istvan Godor & Pal Frenger, Oliver Blume, Hauke Holtkamp, Muhammad Imran, Attila Vidacs & Peter Fazekas, Dario Sabella, Emilio Calvanese Strinati & Rohit Gupta, Pekka Pirinen, and Albrecht Fehske

Introduction

Motivation

Energy Efficiency and Network Technologies

Energy Efficiency Evaluation Framework

Cell Deployment Strategies

Macro Cell Deployment

Heterogeneous Cell Deployment

Relaying Techniques

Relaying Schemes

Two Hop vs. Multicast Cooperative Relaying

Hybrid Schemes for Two Hop Relaying

Multi-RAT Deployment

Aspects of LTE Roll-Out over Legacy Networks

Topology Planning In Multi-RAT Environment

Comparison of LTE and Legacy Networks

Base Station Coordination and Cooperation

Fractional Frequency Reuse

Cooperating Base Stations

Adaptive Network Reconfiguration

Bandwidth Adaptation

Multi-RAT Management

Radio Resource Management

Theoretical Considerations

High Load Scheduling

Low Load Scheduling

Hardware Optimal Scheduling

Complementary Research Activities for Access Networks

Operator Cooperation

Management of WLANs

Hardware Techniques

Future Architectures

De-coupling of System Information and User Data

Coverage Extension by Multihop Relaying

Network Coding

Summary and Outlook

Energy Efficient Communications in MIMO Wireless Channels; Vineeth S. Varma, E. Veronica Belmega, Samson Lasaulce and Merouane Debbah

Introduction

On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Single-User Communications

General De nition of the Energy-Efficiency Performance Criterion

Optimizing the Total Transmit Power and Power Allocation in MIMO Channels with Perfect CSI

Static Links

Fast Fading Links

Slow Fading Links

Energy Efficient Communication in MIMO Channels with Imperfect CSI

Power Control

Optimizing Training Sequence Length

Optimizing the Number of Transmit Antennas

Cross Layer Design in Energy-Efficient Communications

On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Multi-User Communications

A Discussion on the Performance Criterion

Power Control in Multi-Carrier CDMA Systems

The Case of Specific Transmitter and Receiver Structures, Multiplexing and Diversity Gain

Non-Cooperative Resource Allocation in Multi-User MIMO Systems

Optimizing Transmit Power with a Matched Filter

Optimizing the Choice of Linear Receiver

Optimizing the Beamforming Vector

Concluding Remarks and Open Issues

Glossary

Minimising Power Consumption to Achieve More Efficient Green Cellular Radio Base Station Designs; John S. Thompson, Peter M. Grant, Simon Fletcher, and Tim O'Farrell

Introduction

Explosive Traffic Growth

Cellular Scenarios

Energy Metrics

Energy Reduction Techniques for High Traffic Load Scenarios

Energy Reduction Techniques for Low Traffic Load Scenarios

Other Energy Reduction Techniques

Conclusion

Energy Conservation of Mobile Terminals in Multi-cell TDMA Networks; Liqun Fu, Hongseok Kim, Jianwei Huang, Soung Chang Liew, and Mung Chiang

Introduction

Challenges and Our Solution

Related Work

System Model

Power Consumption Model

Inter-Cell Interference

Dynamic User Sessions

Problem Formulation and Decoupling Property

Power Minimization in Multi-Cell Networks

Intra-Cell Average Power Minimization

Decoupling Property

The DSP Algorithm

DSP Algorithm When δ ≤ 0

DSP Algorithm When δ > 0

Simulation results

Power Consumption Improvement

Reduction of the Inter-Cell Interference Power Level

Convergence Performance

Potential Research Directions

Conclusion

Energy Efficiency for Wireless Relay Systems; Jinho Choi, Duc To, Weixi Xing, Ye Wu, and Shugong Xu

Introduction

Background

HARQ and Energy-Delay Tradeoff

Wireless Relay Systems

One-Way Relay Systems

EDT with Amplify-and-Forward Protocol

EDT with Decode-and-Forward Protocol

Analysis and Numerical Results

Two-Way Relay systems

EDT with Analog Network Coding

EDT with Physical-Layer Network Coding

Analysis and Numerical Results

Conclusions

Holistic Approach to Green Wireless Communications Based on Multicarrier Technologies; Hanna Bogucka, Adrian Kliks, Pawe l Kryszkiewicz, and Oliver Holland

Introduction

Efficient Use of Natural Resources in Wireless Multicarrier

Energy-and-Spectrum Efficient OFDM Adaptive Transmission

OFDM Energy-Wastage Minimization

Reducing the Electromagnetic Pollution

OFDM Out-of-Band Radiation Reduction

Holistic View On Reduction of Non-Linear Distortions In OFDM

Spectrum Recycling in Future Multicarrier

NC-OFDM Spectrum Access with Taxation

Concluding Remarks

Green Video Streaming over Cellular Networks; Yingsong Huang, Shiwen Mao, and Yihan Li

Introduction

Green Video Communications

Video Communication System Overview

Energy Efficiency in Video Coding

Energy Efficiency in Video Transmission

Joint Video Coding and Transmission Design

Video over Emerging Wireless Networks

Energy Efficient Downlink VBR Video Streaming

Overview

System Model

Network and Video Source Model

Power-Aware Transmission Scheduling

Inequality and Theory of Majorization

Majorization Preliminaries

Schur-convexity of Problem (23.10)

Power Allocation Algorithms

Optimal Algorithm for Problem (23.10)

Power Minimization Algorithm

Optimality Proof

Multiuser Video Transmissions

Performance Evaluation

Conclusion and Future Directions

FOCUS ON WIRELINE COMMUNICATIONS

Trading off Energy and Forwarding Performance in Next-Generation Network Devices; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, Franco Davoli, and Paolo Lago

Introduction

The Devices' Internal Sources of Energy Consumption

Power Scaling Techniques

A Theoretical Model of the Trade-Off Between Energy Consumption and Quality of Service

Introducing Energy-Aware Parameters

The Traffic Arrival Process Model

The Queuing System Model

Model Validation

Conclusions

Energy Efficient VI Planning over Converged Optical Network and IT Resources; Anna Tzanakaki, Markos Anastasopoulos, Konstantinos Georgakilas, Shuping Peng, Reja Nejabati, Eduard Escalona, and Dimitra Simeonidou

Introduction

Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure

Optical Network Elements

Energy Consumption Models for Computing Resources

Energy Aware VI Planning

VI Problem Formulation

VI Planning With Resilience Considerations

Numerical Results and Comparisons

Conclusions

Energy Aware Techniques In IP-Over-WDM Backbone Networks; Antonio Cianfrani, Angelo Coiro, Vincenzo Eramo, and Marco Listanti

Introduction

Power Aware Network Topology Design

Power Aware Virtual Topology Design (PA-VTD)

Power Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (PA-RWA)

Energy Aware Traffic Engineering

EA-TE Overlay Strategies

EA-TE Integrated Strategies

Energy-Aware Network Management and Content Distribution; Luca Chiaraviglio and Ibrahim Matta

Introduction

Problem Formulation

Classical Design

Centralized Green Model

Distributed Algorithms

Dual Green Algorithm

Benders Green Algorithm

Performance Evaluation

Centralized Model

Impact of Cooperation

Impact of QoS Constraints

Impact of CP Location

Distributed Algorithms

Comparison

Sensitivity Analysis

Discussion

Related Work

Conclusions

Energy Saving Strategies in Fixed Access Networks; Bjorn Skubic, Alexander Lindstrom, Einar In de Betou, Ioanna Pappa

Introduction

Technology

Equipment Models

System Specific Contributions

Per-Line Comparison

Architecture

Dynamic Power Management

Sleep Mode

Conclusions

Glossary

Index

Author Bio

Dr. Jinsong Wu is the Founding Chair of the Technical Subcommittee on Green Communications and Computing (TSCGCC), IEEE Communications Society, which was officially approved and established in December 2011. He is the Vice-Chair, Track on Green Communication Systems and Networks, the Selected Areas in Communications Symposium, IEEE GLOBECOM 2012. He is one of Technical Program Committee Chairs, the 2012 IEEE Online Conference on Green Communications. He is the proposer and the Moderator/Chair of the Technical Panels on Green Communications and Computing in the IEEE INFOCOM 2012, IEEE ICC 2012, and IEEE GLOBECOM 2012. He obtained Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Since 2010, he has worked as Research Scientist in Bell Laboratories, Shanghai, China. He has experienced research and development positions relevant to communications engineering in Nortel Networks Canada, Philips Research USA, and Sprint-Nextel USA. His recent research interests lie in green communications and computing, communications theory and signal processing, cognitive networks, space-time-frequency processing and coding, cooperative communications, quality of service, iterative processing, and communication optimization. He has served as technical program committee members in more than 26 leading international telecommunications relevant conferences or workshops, such as IEEE GLOBECOM, IEEE ICC (main symposia and workshops), IEEE VTC (main tracks and workshops), IEEE ISCIT, iCOST, WAC, FutureTech, and so on. He currently is an IEEE Senior Member.

Dr. Sundeep Rangan received the B.A.Sc. at the University of Waterloo, Canada and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley, all in Electrical Engineering. He has held postdoctoral appointments at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and Bell Labs. In 2000, he co-founded (with four others) Flarion Technologies, a spinoff of Bell Labs, that developed Flash OFDM, one of the first cellular OFDM data systems. Flarion grew to over 150 employees with trials worldwide. In 2006, Flarion was acquired by Qualcomm Technologies where Dr. Rangan was a Director of Engineering involved in OFDM infrastructure products. He joined the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Polytechnic Institute of New York University, USA, in 2010. His research interests are in wireless communications, signal processing, information theory and control theory.

Dr. Honggang Zhang is a Full Professor of Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering as well as the Co-Director of York-Zhejiang Lab for Cognitive Radio and Green Communications at the Zhejiang University, China. He is an Honorary Visiting Professor of the University of York, UK. He received the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Kagoshima University, Japan, in March 1999. From October 1999 to March 2002, he was with the Telecommunications Advancement Organization (TAO) of Japan, as a TAO Research Fellow. From April 2002 to November 2002, he joined the TOYOTA IT Center. From December 2002 to August 2004, he has been with the UWB Research Consortium, the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) of Japan. He was the principle author and contributor for proposing DS-UWB in IEEE 802.15 WPAN standardization task group. From September 2004 to February 2008, he has been with CREATE-NET (Italy), where he leaded its wireless teams in exploring Cognitive Radio (CR) and UWB technologies while participated the European FP6/FP7 projects (EUWB, PULSERS 2). Dr. Honggang Zhang serves as the Chair of Technical Committee on Cognitive Networks (TCCN) of the IEEE Communications Society (ComSoc). He was the Co-Chair of IEEE Globecom 2008 Symposium.

He was the founding TPC Co-Chair of CrownCom 2006 as well as the Steering Committee Member of CrownCom 2006-2009. In the area of green communications, Dr. Honggang Zhang was the Lead Guest Editor of the IEEE Communications Magazine special issues on \Green Communications". He was the General Chair of IEEE/ACM GreenCom 2010 (2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Green Computing and Communications) and the Co-Chair of the IEEE International Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm 2010-2011) in conjunction with IEEE ICC/Globecom. He is the co-author/editor of the book "Cognitive Communications - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI), Regulatory Policy & Economics, Implementation", published by Wiley Press.

Name: Green Communications: Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms and Applications (Hardback)CRC Press 
Description: Edited by Jinsong Wu, Sundeep Rangan, Honggang Zhang. Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone’s head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network...
Categories: Communications System Design, Digital & Wireless Communication, Telecommunications