Developmental Disorders of the Frontostriatal System
Neuropsychological, Neuropsychiatric and Evolutionary Perspectives
Psychology Press – 2001 – 320 pages
Series: Brain, Behaviour and Cognition
In this book, the author discusses a range of common neurodevelopmental disorders affecting young people - autism, depression, schizophrenia, ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder - from the unique perspective of their proposed common origin in the function and dysfunction of the brain's frontostriatal system.
Throughout the book, the author systematically compares and contrasts them from a biological, clinical and evolutionary standpoint, viewing them as extensions of normal personality attributes, which, in less extreme form, may possess certain behavioural advantages, explaining their persistence in the general population. The result is a unique, up-to-date, and wide-ranging discussion of these disorders that draws upon biology, genetics, neuropsychology, neuropathology, neuroimaging, and clinical presentation and treatment. It will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and practitioners in neuropsychology, neuropsychiatry, psychiatry, and clinical psychology.
'This book will increase the knowledge of most people who deal with patients with these six disorders and should therefore improve their management. I recommend it for the reference shelf and for the personal library of anyone interested in the theoretical basis of emotional problems.' - The British Journal of Psychiatry
Preface. Part 1: Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Behavioural Neurology, and Other Preliminary Issues. Introduction. A Proliferation of Disciplines. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioural Neurology. Neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychology. Behavioural Neurology. Heritability and Genetics. Disease, Syndromes, Symptoms and Diagnosis. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 2: The Frontal Cortex and the Control of Behaviour. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Hierarchical Organization in Preparation for Action. Action Schemata. The Prefrontal Cortex. Five Parallel, Segregated Circuits. Skeletomotor Circuit. Oculomotor Circuit. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Circuit. Lateral Orbitofrontal Circuit. Anterior Cingulated Circuit. The Dorsolateral Prefrontal Circuit. The Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex. Recognition of Reinforcing Stimuli. Stimulus-reinforcer Learning. Coding for Changes in Reinforcement Contingencies. Emotionality, Personality and Automatic Functions. The Mesial and Anterior Cingulated Circuit. Supplementary Motor Area and Premotor Area. Action, Consciousness and Attention. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 3: The Basal Ganglia. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Phsiology of the Basal Ganglia. Direct and indirect Pathways. Functions of the Basal Ganglia. Supplementary Motor Area and Basal Ganglia. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 4: Tourette's Syndrome. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Tics. Rating Scale of Severity. Age of Onset and Prevalence. Comorbidity. Familial and Genetic Aspects. Pathophysiology of Tourette's Syndrome. Neuropsychological Deficits. Neurochemistry, Pharmacology and Treatment. Tourette's Syndrome - A Syndrome of Developmental Delay? Adaptive Aspects of Tourette's Syndrome. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 5: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Onset and Prevalence. Obsessions and Compulsions. Rating Scales of Severity. Obsessive Compulsive Personality. A Neurodevelopmental Disorder. Comorbidity. Genetics. Neuropsychology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Neuropathology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Neurochemistry of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Frontostriatal Circuitry and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Treatment. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 6: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Diagnostic Considerations. Symptomatology. Rating Scales of Severity. Prevalence. Adult Onset. Comorbidity. Genetics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuroimaging Studies. Neuropsychology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Attentional Problems. Inhibitory, Reward and Activation Systems. Neurochemistry and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Evolutionary Adaptive Aspects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 7: Schizophrenia: A Disorder of Thought. Introduction. Preliminary Considerations. Symptomatology of Schizophrenia. Positive Symptoms. Negative Symptoms. Hallucinations. Delusional Beliefs. Rating Scales of Severity. Structural and Functional Anomalies of the Brain in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia a Disorder of Interconnectivity. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia. Motor Deficits in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia As a Neurodevelopmental Disorder. Minor Physical Anomalies in Schizophrenia. Childhood Schizophrenia. Late-Onset Schizophrenia. Genetics of Schizophrenia. the Neuropsychiatry of Schizophrenia. Serotonin. Dopamine. Glutamate. Acetycholine. Noradrenaline. Medication. Summary and Conclusions. Further Reading. Part 8: Autism. Introduction. Evolving Concepts in the Study of Autism. Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Autism: General Features. Rating Scaled of Severity. Prevalence of Autism. Comorbidities and Causative Medical Conditions. Theory of Mind in Autism. Language and Autism. Repetitive Behaviour