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Structural Adjustment, the Environment and Sustainable Development

By David Reed

Routledge – 2009 – 420 pages

Series: Environmental and Resource Economics Set

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    978-0-415-85087-2
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Description

This is a pioneering study which should serve as a model for future research and will to a wide audience' Dharam Ghai, Director United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Structural Adjustment and the Environment (Earthscan, 1992) was the first book to fully examine the effects of 'structural adjustment programmes the economic reform policies required by the World Bank and IMF as part of their lending operations with borrowing countries. To widespread Critical acclaim it exposed the damaging environmental and social effects of structural adjustment policies, and called for a thorough revision of the then-current development policy. This new work; Structural Adjustment, the Environment and sustainable Development is a major step forward in the study of structural adjustment policies. It looks in detail at new research and analysis into their effects, and incorporates recent studies by a wide range of academics and policy-makers, leading experts and institutes. Focusing on nine in-depth case studies, the book examines the complex links between macroeconomic policies, social impacts and environmental outcomes, and takes a forward-looking perspective in outlining the alternatives to current structural adjustment policies. Review quotes for Structural Adjustment and the Environment 'Should be essential reading for all students of development' Third World Planning Review 'Breaks new ground in the debate on structural adjustment generally. and in the environment/development debate' International Affairs 'The most substantial contribution to date to what is undoubtedly an important area' Development and Change David Reed is director of the Macroeconomics for Sustainable Development Programme of WWF International, and editor of Structural Adjustment and the Environment (Earthscan, 1992). Originally published in 1996

Contents

Foreword Preface Introduction Lessons Derived from the First Research Program Influence of the First WWF Program on This Second Study Structure of This Study Part One 1. An Instrument of Global Economic Policy The Evolving Debate on Adjustment Attribution of Cause But in Whose Interests? And What about Long-term Impacts? The Adjustment Imperative The End of the Golden Age The Legacy of Supply-side Economics World Bank Intervention The Push Toward Privatization A New Generation of Criticisms Increasing Vulnerability to External Shocks and Pressures Impacts on Industrial Policy Distributional Equity 'Deregulating' Labor Markets Gender Equity Environmental Impacts of Liberalized Trade Regimes Environmental Costs of Expanding Non-traditional Agricultural Exports Restructuring the World Economy An Instrument of Global Economic Policy Adjustment's Resilience 2. Sustainable Development The Political Foundations of Sustainable Development The Stockholm Conference Sharpening Global Environmental Tensions First Articulations of Sustainable Development The Rio Conference An Operational Approach to Sustainable Development Toward an Operational Definition Reforming National Development Strategies Changing International Development Patterns Adjustment Policy in the Context of Sustainable Development Part Two Introduction Organization of the Research Program Common Methodological Challenges 3. Case Study for Cameroon Background The Setting Methodology The Environment Salient Features Major Environmental Problems and their Causes The Environmental Impacts of Past Development Policies Environmental Policies and Sustainability Long-term Environmental Trends The Economy Economic Performance and Structural Adjustment since 1985 Economic and Social Impacts of Recent and Current Adjustment Environmental Impacts of Recent and Current Adjustment Four Case Studies Conclusions Sustainable Development Development Scenarios Requisites for Sustainable Development Implications for Adjustment and Development Program Design Prospects for Adoption of Sustainable Development Policies 4. Case Study for Mali The Environment Salient Features Major Environmental Problems and Their Causes Environmental Impacts of Past Development Policies Environmental Policies Long-term Environmental Trends The Economy Development Strategy Economic Performance and Structural Adjustment Economic and Social Impacts of Adjustment Environmental Impacts of Adjustment Three Case Studies Conclusions on Adjustment-environment Linkages Sustainable Development Development Scenarios Requisites for Sustainable Development Implications for Adjustment and Development Program Design Prospects for Sustainable Development Policies 5. Case Study for Tanzania Background State of the Economy and the Environment Environmental Policy Structural Adjustment Adjustment-environment Linkages: Analysis Deforestation Soil Erosion The Influence of Structural Adjustment Sustainable Development: Future Scenarios If Current Adjustment Programs Continue Under Alternative Policies Trade-offs Recommendations Activities That Could Be Integrated into Existing Structural Adjustment Programs Changing the Objectives of Future Structural Adjustment Programs Sequencing of Structural Adjustment Policies to Pursue in Parallel with Structural Adjustment Limiting Factors 6. Case Study for Zambia Background State of the Economy and the Environment Environmental Policy Structural Adjustment Adjustment-environment Linkages Loss of Wildlife Deforestation Urban Water Pollution Poverty and the Environment Distribution of Costs and Benefits Sustainable Development: Future Scenarios If Current Adjustment Programs Continue If Current Sectoral Policies Continue Under Alternative Policies Trade-offs Recommendations Reorienting Current Structural Adjustment Programs Developing Alternative Structural Adjustment Policies Policies to Pursue in Parallel with Structural Adjustment 7. Case Study for El Salvador Environmental Overview Population and the Environment Current Dynamics of Environmental Degradation The Unsustainability of Past Development The Early Role of Agroexport Production Economic Diversification in the Fifties and Sixties Failed Attempts at Agrarian Transformation and Economic Diversification during the Seventies Reforms under the Civil War, the Eighties and Early Nineties Economic Reform: Context and Overall Performance Economic Decline During the Early Eighties The Role of U.S. Economic Aid and Remittances The First Stage of Economic Reform The Structural Adjustment Stage of Economic Reform Economic Growth, the Breakdown of Rural Livelihoods, and the Environment Private Consumption-led Growth under Structural Adjustment Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Environmental Degradation Poverty and Environmental Degradation in the Rural Economy Economic Reform and the Environment: The Institutional Dimension The Demise of the National Institutional Capacity During the First Stage The Roles of USAID, the World Bank, and the IDB Comments and Recommendations 8. Case Study for Jamaica Past Economic Reforms and Structural Adjustment Policies Population Concentrations and Human Settlements Water Contamination External Migration Environmental Impacts of Past Development Policies and Practices Case Studies of Economy-environment Links Bauxite/alumina Coffee Tourism Cement Environmental Institutions Conclusions Recommendations Impacts of Current and Planned Adjustment Programs Development Choices 9. Case Study for Venezuela Economic Policy and Structural Adjustment Social Impacts on the Labor Markets and the Urban Environment Poverty and Social Policies Labor Markets The Urban Environment The Environment and Structural Adjustment Effects of Structural Adjustment Policies on the Environment Environmental Indicators Institutions, the Environment, and Structural Adjustment Effects Exploring Future Impacts: Scenarios for the Economy and the Environment Macroeconomic Performance Modeled The Environment and Structural Adjustment Scenarios Sustainable Development Sociopolitical Feasibility Analysis Conclusions 10. Case Study for Pakistan Introduction Economic Development The Environment and Natural Resources Social and Environmental Elements in Structural Adjustment Programs The Environmental and Social Impacts of Reforms Long-run Projections Equilibrium Analysis Analysis of the Distributional Impacts Waterlogging and Salinization in Irrigated Agriculture Summary and Conclusions 11. Case Study for Vietnam The Economic Context of Reform Constraints to Sustainable Growth Major Environmental Issues Facing Vietnam Land and Soil Resources Forest Resources Water Resources Fishery Resources Biodiversity Water Pollution Air and Atmospheric Pollution Solid Waste Hazardous Waste Integrating Development Policies and the Environment Agricultural Policy Forestry Policy Industrial Policy Energy Policy Modeling the Vietnamese Economy: Paths Toward Integration The Model Policy Experiments Conclusions and Recommendations Preconditions for Integration The Capital-theoretic Basis for Recommendations Part Three 12. Conclusions: Short-term Environmental Impacts of Structural Adjustment Programs Direct Environmental Effects of Price Corrections External Adjustments Internal Adjustments Indirect Environmental Impacts of Economic Reforms Social Impacts Institutional Impacts Summary of the Indirect Environmental Impacts of Economic Reforms General Summary 13. Conclusions: Impacts of Structural Adjustment on the Sustainability of Developing Countries The Economic Dimension of Sustainable Development Sound Macroeconomic Management Poverty-alleviating Growth Agricultural Production The Role of the State Cost Internalization The Social Dimension of Sustainable Development Distributional Equity Social Services Gender Equity Population Stabilization Political Participation The Environmental Dimension of Sustainable Development Consumption of Renewable Natural Resources Consumption of Nonrenewable Resources Sink Functions Natural Capital Precautionary Principle Institutional Framework In Conclusion 14. Recommendations Integrating Environmental Issues into Macroeconomic Reforms Poverty The Role of the State National Institutional Reforms The Role of Civil Society Reform of International Financial Institutions Reform of International Institutions Bibliography Acronyms and Abbreviations Index

Name: Structural Adjustment, the Environment and Sustainable Development (Hardback)Routledge 
Description: By David Reed. This is a pioneering study which should serve as a model for future research and will to a wide audience' Dharam Ghai, Director United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Structural Adjustment and the Environment (Earthscan, 1992)...
Categories: Sustainable Development, Environmental Economics, Economics, Governance - Politics & International Relations, Politics & International Relations, Environment & Economics