Glossary
 

adaptive reuse

The development of a new use for an older building or for a building originally designed for a special or specific purpose. Adaptive reuse is a particularly useful technique for preserving older buildings of historic or architectural significance. It also applies to the conversion of other special-use structures, such as gas stations, train stations, or school buildings, which are no longer needed for their original use.

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act, is an economic stimulus package enacted in 2009. The goals of the Recovery Act were to create new jobs and save existing ones, spur economic activity, invest in long-term growth and foster accountability and transparency in government spending. The Recovery Act intended to achieve these goals by providing tax cuts and benefits to working families and businesses, increasing federal funds for education, health care and entitlement programs, making funds available for federal contracts, grants and loans and requiring recipients of funds to report quarterly on how they were using the money. (See Chapter 7.)

Recovery.gov. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: www.recovery.gov/Pages/default.aspx

assured mutual destruction policy

Process by which the United States and Soviet Union accumulated enough nuclear weapons and methods of delivery where neither was assumed to take the chance of launching. (See Chapter 6.)

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. (2009). The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

atoll

A ring-shaped group of coral islands that are surrounded by deep ocean water that enclose a shallow lagoon. (See Chapter 5.)

Geology.com. Geology and Earth Science Terms and Definitions. http://geology.com/geology-dictionary.shtml

back-of-the-envelope calculation

A simple comparison of value and cost used during the initial stages of a project proposal, when ideas are not sufficiently defined to justify the expenditures of time and/or money needed for a full-scale, detailed analysis. (See Chapter 3.)

Miles, Mike E., et al. (2007). Real Estate Development: Principles and Process. Washington, D.C.: ULI− the Urban Land Institute.

benefit cost analysis

Comparison of the monetary value of the benefits of a public project with the estimated costs. If costs exceed benefits, analysts will conclude that the project threatens to impose economic penalties rather than foster economic gains. Because project proposals often reach far into the future and promise long-lasting benefits, cost-benefit analysis takes the future into account by discounting or giving less weight to costs and benefits that will be received in the future. (See Chapter 7.)

Hoch, Charles , J. (Ed.) (2000). The Practice of Local Government Planning. Washington, D.C.: International City/County Management Association. p.

biosphere

The portion of Earth and its atmosphere that can support life.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms. www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

 

(See Chapter 1.)

 

buffer area

Open, secured area between a hazardous facility and potentially exposed populations. (See Chapter 6.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

Categorical Exclusion

Categorical Exclusions (CEs) are actions which meet the definition contained in 40 CFR 1508.4, and, based on past experience with similar actions, they do not involve significant environmental impacts. They are actions which: do not induce significant impacts to planned growth or land use for the area; do not require the relocation of significant numbers of people; do not have a significant impact on any natural, cultural, recreational, historic or other resource; do not involve significant air, noise, or water quality impacts; do not have significant impacts on travel patterns; and do not otherwise, either individually or cumulatively, have any significant environmental impacts. (See Chapter 1.)

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Environmental Review Toolkit.  http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov.

chronic emissions

Normal emissions of chemical, biological and physical agents from facilities such as power plants, manufacturing facilities and private vehicles, to be distinguished from abnormal or acute emissions that occur because of a failure, such as a rupture, collision, explosion or other system break. (See Chapter 6.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

Conrail

Founded in 1976, the Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) is a switching and terminal railroad that operates as an agent for its owners, Norfolk Southern and CSX, in the Shared Assets Areas of Northern New Jersey, Southern New Jersey/Philadelphia, and Detroit. Conrail provides rail service for many local rail freight customers in these areas. (See Chapter 2.)

Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL). Freight.  http://www.conrail.com/freight.htm.

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)

The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) coordinates Federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. CEQ was established within the Executive Office of the President by Congress as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and additional responsibilities were provided by the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970. (See Chapter 1.).

The White House. The Council on Environmental Quality - See  http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/about.

cultural artifacts

Objects, vistas and properties of important historical and cultural significance. (See Chapter 1.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

cumulative impacts

Aggregate environmental and social impacts over the course of constructing and implementing a proposed policy. These include human and ecological risks. (See Chapter 1.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

decommissioning

The process of closing down a facility followed by reducing residual radioactivity to a level that permits the release of the property for unrestricted use. (See Chapter 6.)

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. 2009. The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Defense Waste Processing Facility

The Savannah River Site’s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world’s largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. The DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. The purpose of DWPF is to immobilize approximately 37 million gallons of high level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The high level waste is vitrified into a durable borosilicate glass, poured into stainless steel canisters, and stored prior to eventual disposal in a geologic repository. (See Chapter 6.)

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). Overview − Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience.  http://sti.srs.gov/fulltext/ms2002145/ms2002145.html.

deindustrialization

A decline over time in the share of manufacturing in an economy, usually accompanied by growth in the share of services. Typically, this is accompanied by an increase in manufactured imports. It may raise concern that the country is losing valuable economic activity to others. (See Chapter 2.)

University of Michigan. Deardorffs' Glossary of International Economics.  
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary.

discount rate

The percentage rate at which money or cash flows are discounted. The discount rate reflects both the market risk-free rate of interest and a risk premium. (See Chapter 7.)

REALTORS Commercial Alliance. Glossary of Commercial Real Estate Terms.  http://www.realtor.org/ncommsrc.nsf/files/commercial%20real%20estate%20glossary.pdf/$file/commercial%20real%20estate%20glossary.pdf

dredging

Removal of mud from the bottom of water bodies. This can disturb the ecosystem and cause silting that kills aquatic life. Dredging of contaminated mud can expose biota to heavy metals and other toxics. Dredging activities may be subject to regulation under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. (See Chapter 4.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

dunnage

The materials used in holds and containers to protect goods and their packaging from moisture, contamination and mechanical damage. Dunnage may include plastic films, jute coverings, tarpaulins, wood (wooden dunnage), rice matting, nonwovens, liner bags or also inlets etc. (See Chapter 5.)

Transport Information Service. Cargo information: Dunnage.  http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/misc/garnier.htm

Earthjustice Legal Defense Funds

Established in San Francisco in1971, Earthjustice is a non-profit public interest law firm that specializes in cases protecting natural resources, safeguarding public health, and promoting clean energy. (See Chapter 7.)

Earthjustice. See  http://earthjustice.org.

easements

A grant of one or more of the property rights by the property owner to and/or for use by the public, a corporation, or another person or entity. (See Chapter 6.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

EIS Supplemental Analysis

A document prepared by the responsible agency to address issues not adequately assessed in the original EIS. (See Chapter 6.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

electromagnetic fields (EMFs)

Fields that arise whenever electrons are moved through a conducting medium. EMFs have two components, one electric and the other magnetic. They move with regular periodicity and are measured in hertz (Hz). The electric fields come directly from the strength of the charge. Magnetic fields result from the motion of the charge. EMFs are measured in kV/m, or kilovolts per meter. A significant amount of research is now under way on the biological effects of EMF, particularly 60 Hz EMF, the type of electric power used in the United States. Most experts believe that "prudent avoidance" of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields represents sound policy. Several states have established maximum field strength standards for transmission line rights-of-way. (See Chapter 2.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

Energy Policy Act (2005)

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 was the first omnibus energy legislation enacted in more than a decade. Major provisions in the bill include: mandatory electricity reliability standards, renewable fuels standards, tax incentives to encourage domestic energy production and energy efficiency, statutory standards for energy efficiency and provisions to encourage domestic energy production.(See Chapter 4.)

U.S. Department of Energy. Federal Emergency Management Program: Energy Policy Act of 2005.  http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/regulations/epact2005.html.

Environmental Assessment

An environmental analysis prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act to determine whether a federal action would significantly affect the environment and thus require a more detailed environmental impact statement. (See Chapter 1.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

Environmental Defense (EDF)

Founded in 1967, the EDF is a nonprofit environmental advocacy group. The group is known for its work on global warming, ecosystem restoration, oceans, and human health. It is nonpartisan, and its work often advocates market-based solutions to environmental problems. (See Chapter 1.)

Environmental Defense Fund. See  http://www.edf.org/home.cfm.

environmental justice

The fair treatment of people of all races, cultures, incomes, and educational levels with respect to the development and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

 

(See Chapter 8.)

 

environmental sampling

Monitoring of air, water, land, wildlife and human populations to determine if they have been exposed to hazardous materials.

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

 

(See Chapter 6.)

 

erosion

The wearing away of land surface by wind or water, intensified by land-clearing practices related to farming, residential or industrial development, road building, or logging. (See Chapter 6.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

Federal Bureau of Reclamation

Established in 1902, the Bureau of Reclamation is best known for the dams, powerplants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states, including more than 600 dams and reservoirs including the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and Grand Coulee on the Columbia River. Presently, the Bureau is the largest wholesaler of water in the country and the second largest producer of hydroelectric power in the western United States. (See Chapter 7.)

U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation: See  http://www.usbr.gov

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Created by Presidential Order in 1979, FEMA is an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that is responsible for coordinating the response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States and that overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities. The governor of the state in which the disaster occurs must declare a state of emergency and formally request from the president that FEMA and the federal government respond to the disaster. The agency also provides state and local governments with experts in specialized fields and funding for rebuilding efforts and relief funds for infrastructure, in conjunction with the Small Business Administration.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Federal Emergency Management Agency: See FEMA.  http://www.fema.gov/

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, or FERC, is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil. FERC also reviews proposals to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals and interstate natural gas pipelines as well as licensing hydropower projects.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). See:  http://ferc.gov/

 

(See Chapter 4.)

 

Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

A FONSI is issued when environmental analysis and interagency review during the EA process find a project to have no significant impacts on the quality of the environment. The FONSI document is the EA modified to reflect all applicable comments and responses. If it was not done in the EA, the FONSI must include the project sponsor's recommendation or selected alternative. No formal public circulation of the FONSI is required, but the state clearinghouse must be notified of the availability of the FONSI. (See Chapter 7.)

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Environmental Review Toolkit.  http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov

floodplains

The flat or nearly flat land along a river or stream or in a tidal area that is covered by water during a flood. (See Chapter 3.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

government-private partnership

Combined efforts by government and private organization to design, build and operate a facility and/or a policy, such as redeveloping Ellis Island. (See Chapter 3.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

greenfield

Farmland and open areas where there has been no previous industrial or commercial activity. (See Chapter 6).

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

groundwater remediation systems

Engineered systems, such as "pump and treat", which attempt to reduce the level of contamination in groundwater. (See Chapter 6.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

half-life

The average time for half the initial radioactivity of a radioisotope to have decayed. By the time several half-lives have elapsed, the radioactivity will have declined to about 1% of the original activity. Measured half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Also called physical or radiological half-life.

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. 2009. The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

 

(See Chapter 6 .)

 

high-level waste

Radioactive materials at the end of a useful life cycle that should be properly disposed of, including (a) the highly radioactive material resulting from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, (b) irradiated reactor fuel, and (c) other highly radioactive material that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission − consistent with existing law − determines by rule require permanent isolation. High-level waste (HLW) can be in the form of spent fuel discharged from commercial nuclear power reactors and in liquid or solid forms from the production of nuclear weapons. (See Chapter 6.)

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. 2009. The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Historic properties (historic site)

A structure, place, natural object, or configuration, or portion thereof, of historical, archaeological, cultural, or architectural significance and designated as such by federal, state, county, or municipal government. (See Chapter 2.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

hydrolysis

The decomposition of organic compounds by interaction with water. (See Chapter 5.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms.

impervious cover

A surface that has been compacted or covered with a layer of material so that it is highly resistant to infiltration by water.

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

institutional controls

Institutional controls are non-engineered instruments, such as administrative and legal controls, that help minimize the potential for human exposure to contamination and/or protect the integrity of the remedy. Although it is EPA's expectation that treatment or engineering controls will be used to address principal threat wastes and that groundwater will be returned to its beneficial use whenever practicable, ICs play an important role in site remedies because they reduce exposure to contamination by limiting land or resource use and guide human behavior at a site. For instance, zoning restrictions prevent site land uses, like residential uses, that are not consistent with the level of cleanup. (See Chapter 6.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Superfund: Laws, Policies and Guidance.  http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/ic/index.htm.

light rail

Electrically self-propelled passenger vehicles that operate entirely or substantially in mixed traffic and in nonexclusive at-grade rights-of-way. (See Chapter 2.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

liquified natural gas

Liquefied natural gas, or LNG, is natural gas in its liquid form. When natural gas is cooled to minus 259 degrees Fahrenheit (‒161 degrees Celsius), it becomes a clear, colorless, odorless liquid. LNG is neither corrosive nor toxic. Natural gas is primarily methane, with low concentrations of other hydrocarbons, water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and some sulfur compounds. During the process known as liquefaction, natural gas is cooled below its boiling point, removing most of these compounds. The remaining natural gas is primarily methane with only small amounts of other hydrocarbons. LNG weighs less than half the weight of water so it will float if spilled on water. (See Chapter 4.)

The California Energy Commission. Energy and Natural Gas: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).  http://www.energy.ca.gov/lng

low-level waste

A general term for a wide range of wastes having low levels of radioactivity. Industries, medical and research facilities, nuclear power reactors, and nuclear fuel fabrication plants generate low-level wastes as part of their normal operations. These wastes are generated in many physical and chemical forms and levels of contamination. Low-level radioactive wastes containing source, special nuclear, or by-product material are acceptable for disposal in a land disposal facility. For the purposes of this definition, low-level waste has the same meaning as in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, that is, radioactive waste not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material. (See Chapter 6.)

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. 2009. The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

master/land use plan

A comprehensive, long-range plan intended to guide the growth and development of a community or region for a set period of time and which typically includes inventory and analytic sections leading to recommendations for the community's land use, future economic development, housing, recreation and open space, transportation, community facilities, and community design, all related to the community's goals and objectives for these elements. (See Chapter 3.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

municipal bond

A bond that is issued by state government or by a unit of local government ‒ such as a city, town village or county ‒ as opposed to the federal government or a corporation. Municipal bonds may be sold for a wide range of purposes; including the financing of roads, parks, schools, water and sewer facilities, environmental projects and public housing...A particular feature of municipal bonds is that their interest is exempt from federal taxation. In addition, taxes are often not levied on their own securities, although taxes are often charged on those issued by another state. (See Chapter 2.)

Schultz, Marilyn S. and Kasen, Vivian L. (1984). Encyclopedia of Community Planning and Environmental Management. United States: Facts On File, Inc.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Standards established by EPA that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. The 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act required EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for certain pollutants known to be hazardous to human health. EPA has identified and set standards to protect human health and welfare for six pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, lead, and nitrogen oxide. The term, "criteria pollutants" derives from the requirement that EPA must describe the characteristics and potential health and welfare effects of these pollutants. It is on the basis of these criteria that standards are set or revised. (See Chapter 2.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) passed in 1969 requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision-making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. To meet NEPA requirements, federal agencies prepare a detailed statement known as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). EPA reviews and comments on EISs prepared by other federal agencies, maintain a national filing system for all EISs, and assure that its own actions comply with NEPA.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Compliance and Enforcement: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).  http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/

 

(See Chapter 1.)

 

National Environmental Research Parks

The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development and strategies to mitigate these effects, as well as to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are administered through the regional DOE Operations Offices and coordinated and guided by the Office of Science. (See Chapter 6.)

U.S. Department of Energy. National Environmental Research Parks: Overview.  http://www.nerp.ornl.gov/

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)

Founded in 1970 by a group of law students and attorneys, the NRDC is a non-profit environmental advocacy group supported by a staff of lawyers, scientists, policy experts and voluntary activists. The NRDC focuses on a broad range of environmental issues at the national level. (See Chapter 1.)

Natural Resources Defense Council. See  http://www.nrdc.org/

needs assessment

A process of examining the demand for additional services in a specific place, typically health-related. (See Chapter 3.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

neutralization

Decreasing the acidity or alkalinity of a substance by adding alkaline or acidic materials, respectively. (See Chapter 5.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

NIMBYism

"Not in my backyard". While the majority of citizens in a region may favor a particular land use, adjoining property owners opposed to the location of the land use in their neighborhood dominate public hearings and city commission meetings, making it difficult to site certain land uses anywhere in the country. (See Chapter 4.)

Hoch, Charles , J. (Ed.) (2000). The Practice of Local Government Planning. Washington, D.C.: International City/County Management Association. p .

nitrogen oxides

The result of photochemical reactions of nitric oxide in ambient air; major component of photochemical smog. Product of combustion from transportation and stationary sources and a major contributor to the formation of ozone in the troposphere and to acid deposition. (See Chapter 2.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

no action alternative

Requirement of the EIS process that the agency consider the option of not taking any action; that is, maintain the status quo.

Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President. (2007). A Citizen's Guide to the NEPA: Having Your Voice Heard.  http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/Citizens_Guide_Dec07.pdf

 

(See Chapter 2.)

 

organophosphorous nerve agents

The most toxic of the known chemical agents, nerve agents are hazards in their liquid and vapor states and can cause death within minutes after exposure. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase in tissue, and their effects are caused by the resulting excess acetylcholine. Considered major military threat agents, nerve agents were developed in pre-World War II Germany, but the only known battlefield use of nerve agents was in the Iraq-Iran conflict. (See Chapter 5.)

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook: Nerve Agents (1995).  http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/army/mmcch/NervAgnt.htm

ozone

Found in two layers of the atmosphere, the stratosphere and the troposphere. In the stratosphere (the atmospheric layer 7 to 10 miles or more above the earth's surface) ozone is a natural form of oxygen that provides a protective layer shielding the earth from ultraviolet radiation. In the troposphere (the layer extending up 7 to 10 miles from the earth's surface), ozone is a chemical oxidant and major component of photochemical smog. It can seriously impair the respiratory system and is one of the most wide-spread of all the criteria pollutants for which the Clean Air Act required EPA to set standards. Ozone in the troposphere is produced through complex chemical reactions of nitrogen oxides, which are among the primary pollutants emitted by combustion sources; hydrocarbons, released into the atmosphere through the combustion, handling and processing of petroleum products; and sunlight. (See Chapter 2.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

photochemical smog

Air pollution caused by chemical reactions of various pollutants emitted from different sources. Photochemical Oxidants: air pollutants formed by the action of sunlight on oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. (See Chapter 2.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

plume

1. A visible or measurable discharge of a contaminant from a given point of origin. It can be visible or thermal in water, or visible in the air as, for example, a plume of smoke. 2. The area of radiation leaking from a damaged reactor. 3. Area downwind within which a release could be dangerous for those exposed to leaking fumes. (See Chapter 5.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

public hearings

A meeting announced and advertised in advance and open to the public, with the public given an opportunity to talk and participate. Public hearings are often required before adoption or implementation of a master plan, project, ordinance, or similar activity. (See Chapter 2.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

public participation (citizen participation)

Public involvement in governmental policy development, formation and implementation. (See Chapter 1.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

radionuclide

Radioactive particle, man-made (anthropogenic) or natural, with a distinct atomic weight number. It can have a long life as soil or water pollutant. (See Chapter 6.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

regulatory agency

Government organization that is responsible for managing assets and the environment, such as EPA and FIRC.

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

 

 (See Chapters 2, 4, 5, 6 & 7.)

 

renewable portfolio standard

A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) provides states with a mechanism to increase renewable energy generation using a cost-effective, market-based approach that is administratively efficient. An RPS requires electric utilities and other retail electric providers to supply a specified minimum amount of customer load with electricity from eligible renewable energy sources. The goal of an RPS is to stimulate market and technology development so that, ultimately, renewable energy will be economically competitive with conventional forms of electric power. States create RPS programs because of the energy, environmental, and economic benefits of renewable energy and sometimes other clean energy approaches, such as energy efficiency and combined heat and power (CHP). (See Chapter 4.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Combined Heat and Power Partnership: Renewable Portfolio Standards Fact Sheet.  http://www.epa.gov/chp/state-policy/renewable_fs.html

right-of-way

A strip of land acquired by reservation, dedication, prescription, or condemnation and intended to be occupied by a street, crosswalk, railroad, electric transmission lines, oil or gas pipeline, water line, sanitary storm sewer, or other similar uses. (See Chapter 4.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

risk analysis

A process of assessing the causes, likelihood and consequences of an event and the alternatives for eliminating or reducing the negative consequences. (See Chapter 6.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

scoping process

One of the initial stages in an Environmental Assessment process, during which government officials meet with stakeholders to discuss issues that should be included in the impact analysis.

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

 

(See Chapter 1.)

 

security zone

Area surrounding a potentially hazardous facility in which public access is restricted, such as a nuclear power plant, liquified natural gas plant or nuclear waste management facility. (See Chapter 4.)

Definition source: Michael R. Greenberg

sediments

Soil, sand, and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers and harbors, destroying fish and wildlife habitat, and clouding the water so that sunlight cannot reach aquatic plants. Careless farming, mining, and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to wash off the land after rainfall. (See Chapter 4.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

Sierra Club

Largest and one of the most influential grassroots environmental organization with chapters located throughout the United States. Founded in 1892 by John Muir with wide-ranging environmental conservation and preservation goals. (See Chapter 1.)

Sierra Club. See  http://www.sierraclub.org/

site specific advisory board (SSAB)

Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Boards were developed to involve stakeholders more directly in DOE Environmental Management cleanup decisions. At the request of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) Assistant Secretary or the Field Managers, the SSAB may provide advice and recommendations concerning the following Environmental Management site-specific issues: clean-up standards and environmental restoration; waste management and disposition; stabilization and disposition of non-stockpile nuclear materials; excess facilities; future land use and long term stewardship; risk assessment and management; and clean-up science and technology activities. (See Chapter 6.)

U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Environmental Management (EM): Site-Specific Advisory Board (SSAB).  http://www.em.doe.gov/pages/ssab.aspx

stewardship

The care of land to preserve its natural amenities. Land is often donated to organizations such as the Nature Conservancy for this purpose, but one may be the steward of one's own land.

Schultz, Marilyn S. and Kasen, Vivian L. (1984). Encyclopedia of Community Planning and Environmental Management. United States: Facts On File, Inc.

 

(See Chapter 6.)

 

suburban sprawl

Poorly planned, auto-dependent growth, usually of a low-density, single-use nature, in previously rural areas and some distance from existing development and infrastructure. (See Chapter 2.)

Moskowitz, Harvey S. and Lindbloom, Carl G. (2004). The Latest Illustrated Book of Development Defintions. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research.

transuranic waste

Waste that is independent of state or origin and that has been contaminated with alpha emitting transuranic radionuclides possessing half-lives greater than 20 years and in concentrations >100 nCi/g (3.7 MBq/kg) (excluding high-level waste). In the United States, it is a by-product of weapons production and consists of protective gear, tools, residue, debris, and other items contaminated with small amounts of radioactive elements (mainly plutonium). (See Chapter 6.)

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. 2009. The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

turbidity

1. Haziness in air caused by the presence of particles and pollutants. 2. A cloudy condition in water due to suspended silt or organic matter. (See Chapter 3.)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Terms of environment: Glossary, abbreviations, and acronyms.  http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms

U.S. Energy Information Adminisitration (EIA)

An independent agency within the U.S. Department of Energy that develops surveys, collects energy data, and does analytical and modeling analyses of energy issues. The Agency must satisfy the requests of Congress, other elements within the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Executive Branch, its own independent needs, and assist the general public, or other interest groups, without taking a policy position.

U.S. Energy Information Administration. See EIA.  http://www.eia.gov/

 

(See Chapter 4.)

 

U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict and Resolution

Established by Congress with the U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution in 1998, the Institute's mission is to help resolve environmental disputes that involve the federal government, by providing mediation, training and related services and to further the implementation of our National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) by providing negotiation, mediation, and other settlement efforts as alternatives to litigation. The Institute was placed within the Udall Foundation, an independent federal agency based in Tucson, Arizona. The U.S. Institute is part of the federal government, but it is completely independent of all other federal agencies. (See Chapter 1.)

U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict and Resolution. See  http://www.ecr.gov/

vesicant

A substance that causes tissue blistering. Vesicants are highly reactive chemicals that combine with proteins, DNA, and other cellular components to result in cellular changes immediately after exposure. Vesicants can be used as agents of chemical warfare, as was the case in World War I, or as agents of terrorism. Vesicants include distilled mustard (HD), mustard gas (H), lewisite, mustard/lewisite, mustard/T, nitrogen mustard, phosgene oxime, sesqui mustard, and sulfur mustard. The most likely routes of exposure are inhalation, dermal contact, and ocular contact. Depending on the particular vesicant, clinical effects may occur immediately (as with phosgene oxime or lewisite) or may be delayed for 2 to 24 hours (as with mustards). (See Chapter 5.)

MedicineNet.com. MedTerms: Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms.  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/hp.asp

vitrification

A process wherein concentrates process waste from a nuclear site is encapsulated in a glass matrix. (See Chapter 6.)

Greenberg, Michael R., et al. 2009. The Reporter's Handbook on Nuclear Materials, Energy, and Waste Management. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.