Students: Chapter Outlines

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Marketing Research

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. What is involved in the decision making process.
  2. How research contributes to the decision making process.
  3. The differences among the following: management problems and opportunities, decisional alternatives, and decisional criteria.
  4. Understand how the research questions lead to formulating research hypotheses.

Chapter Outline

  1. The Marketing-Decision Environment
  2. Marketing Research
  3. Marketing Research and Decision Making
    1. Identify a Problem or Opportunity
    2. Analyze the Problem or Opportunity
    3. Identify Alternatives
    4. Select an Alternative
  4. Strategic Versus Tactical Information Needs
  5. The Nature of Marketing Research
    1. Marketing Research for Small Organizations
      1. Customer Research
      2. Competitor Analysis
      3. Operational Environment
    2. The Nature of Conventional and Unconventional Research
  6. Steps in a Marketing Research Project
    1. Define the Management Problem
    2. Specify Research Purpose
      1. Identify Decision Alternatives
      2. Determine Decisional Criteria
      3. Indicate Timing and Significance Decisions
    3. State Research Objectives
    4. Develop Research Design
    5. Select Data-Collection Methodology
    6. Determine Measurement and Data-Analysis Methods
    7. Design Data-Collection Forms
    8. Define Sampling Methods
    9. Collect, Analyze and Interpret the Data, and Present the Results
  7. Marketing Information Systems
  8. Summary
  9. Discussion Questions

Chapter 2: Ethics in Marketing Research  

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. Differences in approaches to ethics.
  2. What it means to do research in an ethical manner.
  3. What is meant by term “informed consent” and why it is critical to ethical research.
  4. How codes of ethics aid in making ethical decision in research.

Chapter Outline

  1. Moral Philosophy
    1. The Rights Principle
    2. Utilitarianism
    3. The Justice Principle
    4. Relativist
  2. Ethics in Marketing Research
    1. Code of Standards
    2. Other Organizational Factors in Marketing Research
    3. International Organization for Standardization
    4. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
  3. Common Ethical Research Issues
    1. Beneficence
    2. Informed Consent
    3. Privacy and Confidentiality Rights
    4. Privacy on the Web
    5. Confidentiality
    6. Avoiding Deception
    7. Debrief
    8. Natural Environments
    9. Dangers of Unethical Market Research
    10. Communication Problems with Clients
    11. Another Employee Makes an Unethical Decision
    12. Time Constraints
    13. Incomplete Research
    14. Client Wants Unobtainable Data    
    15. Making Poor Business Decisions from Faulty Data
  4. Ethical Decision Making
  5. Summary
  6. Discussion Questions
  7. Appendix
    1. Resources for Ethics

Chapter 3: Secondary Data

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The difference in secondary and primary data.
  2. The advantages and disadvantages of secondary data.
  3. What is meant by a “search strategy”.
  4. How secondary data can help in the collection of primary data.

Chapter Outline

  1. Uses of Secondary Data
  2. Advantages of Secondary Data
  3. Disadvantages of Secondary Data
  4. Secondary Data Sources
    1. Secondary Data Sources on the World Wide Web
      1. General Search Engines
      2. Markets
      3. Marketing
    2. Your Local Library
    3. Syndicated Data Sources
    4. Consumer Data Sources
    5. Company Data Sources
    6. Market Data Sources
    7. Cost Data Sources
    8. General Advice
  5. Summary
  6. Discussion Questions

Chapter 4: Research Designs: Exploratory and Qualitative Research

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. Differences in exploratory, descriptive, and causal research.
  2. How exploratory/qualitative research differs from quantitative research.
  3. When exploratory/qualitative research should be used.
  4. How exploratory/qualitative research can improve the development of the quantitative research process.

Chapter Outline

  1. Types of Research Designs
  2. Exploratory Research
    1. Tools Used to Conduct Exploratory Research
    2. Explanation of the Qualitative Research Process
    3. Qualitative versus Quantitative
    4. Designing the Qualitative Study
    5. Qualitative Research Methods
      1. Literature Review
      2. In-Depth Interviews
      3. Focus Groups
        1. Why Conduct Focus Groups?
        2. Focus Group Composition
        3. Selection and Recruitment of Group Participants
        4. Moderator Role and Responsibilities
        5. Trends in Focus Groups
    6. Immersion Groups
    7. Ethnography
    8. Netnography
    9. Grounded Theory
    10. Analysis of Selected Cases
    11. Projective Techniques
  3. The Value of Exploratory Research
  4. Summary
  5. Discussion Questions

Chapter 5: Research Designs: Descriptive and Causal Research

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. How exploratory/qualitative, descriptive, and causal research differ.
  2. The factors influencing the choice of research design.
  3. How descriptive designs differ from experimental designs.
  4. The differences between a quasi experimental, pre-experimental, and true experimental designs.
  5. What is meant by the terms: treatments, experimental units, and experimental designs.
  6. Differences in the application of experiments to test marketing.

Chapter Outline

  1. Descriptive Research
    1. Cross-Sectional Designs
    2. Longitudinal Studies
  2. Causal Research
  3. Experimentation
    1. What is Experimentation?
    2. The Terminology of Experimentation
      1. Experimental Treatments
      2. Experimental Units
      3. Experimental Designs
      4. Control Group
    3. Validity and Experimentation
    4. Field versus Laboratory Experiments
    5. Experimental Design Symbols
    6. Ethics and Experimentation
    7. Experimental Research Designs
      1. Pre-experimental Designs
      2. True experimental Designs
      3. Quasi Experimental Designs
  4. Limitations of Causal Research
  5. Ex Post Facto Research
  6. Test Marketing
    1. Three Types of Test Markets
      1. Standard Test Markets
      2. Controlled Store Test Markets
      3. Simulated Test Markets
  7. Exploratory, Descriptive, or Causal Observation
  8. Dangers of Defining Design by Technique
  9. Summary
  10. Discussion Questions

Chapter 6: Measurement

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. What is meant by the measurement process?
  2. The differences in nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio levels of measurements.
  3. The concepts of validity and reliability of measurement.
  4. What is meant by a measurement scale?
  5. How scales are used in marketing research.

Chapter Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. The Process of Measurement
    1. Step 1: Determine the Construct(s) of Interest
    2. Step 2: Specify the Construct(s) Domain
    3. Step 3: Establish Operational Definitions
    4. Step 4: Collect Data to Test Measures
    5. Step 5: Purify the Measures
    6. Step 6: Conduct Validity Tests
    7. Step 7: Analyze Research Findings
    8. Commentary on the Measurement Process
  3. What is to be Measured
  4. Who is to be Measured
  5. How to Measure What Needs to be Measured
    1. The Nominal Scale
    2. The Ordinal Scale
    3. The Interval Scale
    4. The Ratio Scale
  6. Assessing Reliability and Validity of our Measures
    1. Reliability
    2. Validity
    3. Commentary on Reliability and Validity
  7. Measuring Psychological Variables
    1. Attitude Measurement
    2. Itemized Rating Scales
    3. Likert Scales
    4. Rank-Order Scales
    5. Comparative Rating Scales
    6. Semantic Differential Scales
    7. Stapel Scales
    8. Commentary on Scales
  8. Summary
  9. Discussion Questions

Chapter 7: Primary Data Collection

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. What is meant by the term primary data.
  2. The different types of primary data that can be collected in a research project.
  3. Basic methods of collecting primary data.
  4. The advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of data collection.

Chapter Outline

  1. Sources of Primary Data
  2. Types of Primary Data
    1. Demographic/Socioeconomic Data
    2. Attitudes
    3. Psychographics/Lifestyle Data
    4. Intentions
    5. Awareness/Knowledge
    6. Motivations
    7. Behaviors
  3. Methods of Collecting Primary Data
    1. Choosing Between Observation and Communication Methods
      1. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Communication Method
      2. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Observation Method
  4. Communication Methods
    1. Exploratory Communication – Focus Group Interviewing
      1. Sequencing of Focus Groups and Surveys
      2. Reporting the Results of Focus Groups
    2. Descriptive Communication – Survey Research
  5. Survey Methods
    1. Telephone Interviewing
      1. From the Home
      2. From Central Location Phone Banks
      3. Telephone Communication
    2. Mail Surveys
    3. Personal Interviewing
    4. Door-to-Door Interviewing
    5. Central Location/Mall Interviewing
    6. Vendor/Dealer/Executive/Professional Interviewing
    7. Computer or Fax Survey
    8. Internet Research
  6. Observation Methods
  7. Summary
  8. Discussion Questions

Chapter 8: Designing the Data-Gathering Instrument  

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The goals of a data collection instrument.
  2. The basic components of a well-designed instrument.
  3. The different types of questions that can be used in a data collection instrument.
  4. The steps involved in designing a questionnaire.
  5. How pretesting can be used to improve the data collection process.

Chapter Outline

  1. Goals of a Questionnaire
    1. Contextualize the Information Collected
    2. Express the Study Objectives in Question Form
    3. Measure the Attitude, Behavior, Intention, Attributes, or Other Characteristics of the Respondent
    4. Create Harmony and Rapport with the Respondent
    5. Provide Just the Right Amount of Information: No More, No Less
  2. Classification of Questions
    1. Structured-Undisguised Questions
    2. Structured-Disguised Questions
    3. Unstructured-Undisguised Questions
    4. Unstructured-Disguised Questions
  3. Designing a Questionnaire
    1. Determine the Specific Information Needed
    2. Identify the Sources
    3. Choose the Method of Administration
    4. Determine the Types of Questions
      1. Open-Ended Questions
      2. Dichotomous Questions
      3. Multichotomous Questions
      4. Scales
    5. Develop the Specific Questions
    6. Determine Question Sequence and Length of the Questionnaire
      1. Introduction
      2. Body/Content
      3. Classification Section
    7. Predetermine Coding
    8. Pretest the Questionnaire
    9. Review and Revise the Questionnaire
  4. Summary
  5. Discussion Questions

Chapter 9: Sampling Methods and Sample Size  

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The difference between a sample and a population or universe.
  2. Why sampling is preferred over a census.
  3. What is meant by sampling error, sample bias, and nonsampling error.
  4. The difference between probability and nonprobability sample designs.
  5. The steps involved in selecting a sample.
  6. How sample size is calculated.
  7. Factors influencing sample size.

Chapter Outline

  1. What is Sampling?
  2. Why Sampling?
  3. Sampling Error, Sample Bias, and Nonsampling Error
    1. Sampling Error
    2. Sample Bias
    3. Nonsampling Error
  4. Sampling Decision Model
    1. Step 1: Define the Population or Universe
    2. Step 2: Determine the Sampling Frame
    3. Step 3: Select the Sampling Method
  5. Probability Sampling
    1. Simple Random Sample
    2. Stratified Samples
    3. Cluster Samples
    4. Systematic Samples
  6. Nonprobability Sampling
    1. Convenience Sample
    2. Judgment Sample
    3. Quota Sample
  7. Probability versus Nonprobability Sampling
    1. Step 4: Determine Sample Size
  8. Statistical Sampling Concepts
    1. The Statistical Side of Sampling
  9. Nonstatistical Determination of Sample Size
    1. Use Previous Sample Sizes
    2. Use “Typical” Sample Sizes
    3. Use a “Magic” Number
    4. Use Resource Simulations
    5. Ask an Expert
    6. Step 5: Select the Sample
  10. What is “Significant” Statistically Significant Difference?
  11. Summary
  12. Discussion Questions

Chapter 10: Fielding the Data-Gathering Instrument  

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The importance of careful planning of the data collection process.
  2. The different types of interviews and requirements of each type.
  3. The importance of identifying “qualified respondents” and probing.
  4. The errors of omission and commission of data collection.
  5. The sources of error in the research process and in data collection.

Chapter Outline

  1. Planning
    1. Budgets          
    2. Staffing
  2. Guidelines for Interviewers
  3. Types of Interviews
    1. Personal Interviews
    2. Telephone Interviews
    3. Mail Surveys
    4. Internet Surveys
  4. The Interviewing Relationship
    1. Cooperation
    2. Rapport
  5. The Interviewing Situation
    1. The Approach
    2. Qualified Respondent
    3. Time Factor
      1. Declines, “Too Busy”
  6. The Actual Interview
    1. The Questionnaire
    2. Legibility
    3. Asking the Questions
      1. Do Not Lead the Respondent
      2. Do Not Be Negative
    4. Record the Response Verbatim
      1. “X” or Circle, Not a Check
    5. Interviewer Attitude
    6. Closure
    7. Classification, Demographic, and Statistical Information
    8. Validation
  7. Fielding a Research Project
    1. Security of the Survey
    2. Briefings
      1. Supervisor Assistance
      2. Do Not Interview Friends or Acquaintances
      3. Adhere to the Study Specifications
      4. Follow All Study Procedures and Instructions
    3. Supervisor Assistance
    4. Do Not Interview Friends or Acquaintances
    5. Adhere to the Study Specifications
    6. Follow All Study Procedures and Instructions
    7. Accurate Record Keeping
    8. Complete Assignments on Time
    9. Work Efficiency
    10. Probing
    11. Clarify
    12. Develop Additional Information
    13. Technical Aspects of Probing
    14. Summary
  8. Sequencing of Contact Methods
  9. Errors in Data Collection
  10. Types of Nonsampling Errors
    1. Sampling Frame Errors
    2. Nonresponse Errors
    3. Data Errors
  11. Summary
  12. Discussion Questions

Chapter 11: Analyzing and Interpreting Data for Decisions

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The relationship between data analysis and decision making.
  2. The importance of planning the data analysis procedures to be used on the collected data.
  3. How frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and dispersion help in summarizing and understanding data.
  4. The usefulness of cross tabulations in data analysis to understand underlying differences in responses.

Chapter Outline

  1. From Data to Decisions
  2. Data Summary Methods
    1. Developing a Plan of Analysis
    2. Frequency Distributions
    3. Central Tendency and Dispersion Measures
  3. Cross-Tabulation
    1. Setting Up Cross-Tabulation Tables
    2. Choosing Variables for Cross-Tabulations
    3. Interpreting Cross-Tabulations
    4. Three-Way Cross-Tabulation
    5. Statistical Significance in Cross-Tabulation
  4. Advanced Analytical Techniques
    1. Correlation
  5. Summary
  6. Discussion Questions

Chapter 12: Advanced Data Analysis

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The difference between statistically significant differences and managerially significant differences.
  2. What it means to say we are testing hypotheses.
  3. How to explain the difference between a “null” and “alternative” hypothesis.
  4. How to explain the different types of error that may occur when we test hypotheses.
  5. Howe to explain the purpose of ANOVA and the two commonly used forms.
  6. How to describe the different types of bivariate association
  7. How to describe various multivariate techniques and how they are used.

Chapter Outline

  1. Marketing Research and Statistical Analysis
  2. Hypothesis Testing
    1. Step 1: Stating the Hypotheses and Decisions
    2. Step 2: Determine the Costs of Decision Errors
    3. Step 3: Setting a Significance Level
    4. Step 4: Collect the Data and Conduct Statistical Tests
    5. Step 5: Compare Results to the Null Hypothesis and Make a Decision
    6. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    7. Concluding Thoughts on Hypothesis Testing
  3. Measures of Association
    1. Bivariate Association
      1. Pearson Product Moment Correlation
      2. Spearman Rank-Order Correlation
      3. Chi-Square Analysis
    2. Multivariate Association
      1. Description and Application of Multivariate Techniques
  4. Summary
  5. Discussion Questions

Chapter 13: The Research Report

Learning Objectives

Upon completing this chapter, you should understand:

  1. The importance of a clearly written report and the make-up of the audience in communicating the findings of the research.
  2. The basic components of a written report.
  3. How the use of charts and graphs can improve the communication value of the results of the study.
  4. The need for preparing and troubleshooting oral reports.

Chapter Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Report Format
    1. Title Page
    2. Table of Contents
    3. Introduction and Research Objectives
    4. Research Methodology
    5. Executive Summary
    6. Findings
    7. Conclusions and Recommendations
    8. Supporting Documentation (Appendixes)
    9. Presentation
  3. Guidelines for the Written Report
    1. Tables
    2. Graphs
    3. General Advice
  4. Oral Reports
  5. Summary
  6. Discussion Questions